• Policy Analysis
    LebanonDemocracy and Governance

    Lebanon Faces a Prolonged Presidential Vacuum

    Nov 29, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Lebanon has experienced a long presidential vacuum three times in its history: from September 1988 to November 1989, from November 2007 to May 2008, and from M…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iraq’s Foreign Policy Balancing Act Is Likely to Continue

    Despite the support that Iraq’s new prime minister, Mohammed Shia’ al-Sudani, has received from pro-Iran factions in the Iraqi Parliament, he is likely to purs…

  • Policy Analysis
    OmanWomen & Gender Issues

    The Role of Women in Oman’s Social and Economic Progress

    Nov 22, 2022Alainna Liloia

    Oman is making gradual progress in the area of women’s rights. Women in Oman are voting, running for office, and serving in ministerial positions. Opportunitie…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyThe War in Ukraine

    Turkey-Brokered Grain Deal Bolsters Erdoğan-Putin Partnership

    Nov 22, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    Turkey’s role in negotiations around Russia’s war in Ukraine has provided Ankara with extraordinary visibility on the global stage. Turkish President Recep Tay…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptEnergy and Economics

    Egypt and the IMF: Greater Foreign Debt and Deeper Economic Decline

    Nov 17, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    Egypt reached a new agreement with the IMF to borrow $3 billion over a 46-month period. The Egyptian economy has been struggling over the past couple of years …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    From Hornet’s Nest to Lion’s Den: Shaking Palestinian Politics from the Ground Up

    Nov 14, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    Two decades ago, in 2002, the Israeli military was in the midst of violently repressing a Palestinian uprising, the Second Intifada, in a campaign that took pl…

  • Policy Analysis

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Representative Ro Khanna called on President Sisi to free Alaa Abd el-Fattah, whose plight has garnered renewed international attention during the COP27 climat…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Kais Saied Sets the Stage for Tunisia’s December 17 Elections

    Nov 11, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    Autocrats love elections, so long as they know they will win them, of course. But because they have zero tolerance for uncertainty at the polls, autocratic reg…

  • Policy Analysis
    Democracy and Governance

    The Colonial Legacy in the Arab World: Health, Education, and Politics

    Nov 9, 2022Yara M. Asi

    In recent years, movements toward “decolonization” have taken hold throughout multiple disciplines, including cultural studies, health, economics, and educatio…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    Challenges and Prospects Facing the New Government in Iraq

    Nov 8, 2022Rend Al-Rahim

    Twelve months of high drama in Iraqi politics finally ended on October 27, with the investiture of a new government headed by Mohammed Shia’ al-Sudani. Two wee…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    A Scandal-Plagued Netanyahu Returns for His Fifth Term as Israeli Prime Minister

    With final election results having been announced by Israel’s Central Elections Committee, Haaretz declared that former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s Lik…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEnergy and Economics

    US-Gulf Relations After OPEC+ Production Cuts

    Nov 2, 2022Jim Krane

    American presidents have long relied on Saudi Arabia and its leadership of OPEC to ease price pressure on oil markets, particularly in the lead-up to US electi…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Congress Versus Biden on Foreign Assistance to Egypt

    Nov 1, 2022Charles W. Dunne

    The Egypt Human Rights Caucus would like a word with President Joe Biden. The group, which was formed in January 2021 on the 10th anniversary of Egypt’s 2011 u…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonEnergy and Economics

    Lebanon Will Not Benefit from Its Maritime Agreement with Israel

    Oct 31, 2022Imad K. Harb

    After ten years of on-again, off-again negotiations, Lebanon and Israel have finally reached what leaders in both countries consider an acceptable deal to dema…

  • Policy Analysis
    Climate and Environment

    COP27 and the MENA Region: Can Climate Change Pledges Result in Action?

    Oct 27, 2022Achref Chibani

    In November of this year, Egypt will host the annual United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP27). While this is not the first time a COP has been held in …

  • Policy Analysis
    SudanDemocracy and Governance

    Sudan: A Flicker of Hope Amid Mounting Problems

    Since the October 2021 military coup that derailed Sudan’s political transition to a much hoped-for democracy, Sudan has been plagued by civil strife, deterior…

  • Policy Analysis
    US Domestic Politics and Elections

    US Midterm Elections and Middle East Policy: Divided Government, Divergent Priorities

    Oct 25, 2022Marcus Montgomery

    There remain only two weeks until the 2022 US midterm elections. Candidate lists in most races are set and early voting is under way in several states. The Dem…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranProtests and Activism

    Tensions Among Iran’s Nervous Ruling Elites

    Oct 24, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    One of the keys to understanding the Islamic Republic of Iran is that despite the regime’s still formidable grip on power, its ruling elite believe that the re…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Violent Nature of Israeli Occupation

    Oct 21, 2022Khalil E. Jahshan

    Foreign military occupation is, by definition, a form of international armed conflict resulting from the belligerent acquisition of territory outside of the re…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Israel’s Administrative Detention Serves Its Practice of Apartheid

    Oct 21, 2022Ben White

    Israel’s policy of administrative detention, which is to say of military detention without charge or trial, rarely attracts mainstream media coverage in the We…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Flaws and Failures of International Humanitarian Aid to Yemen

    Oct 20, 2022Afrah Nasser

    In a July 2022 report on the UN’s humanitarian response to the crisis in Yemen, the UN Inter-Agency Humanitarian Evaluation Steering Group concluded that “the …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt-Turkey Relations: Challenges and Future Prospects

    Oct 18, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    Over the past two years, several positive signs have emerged in the Egyptian-Turkish relationship that might result in the normalization of diplomatic relation…

  • Policy Analysis
    KuwaitDemocracy and Governance

    Parliamentary Elections Are Unlikely to Alter Kuwait’s Political Landscape

    Voters in Kuwait went to the polls on September 29 to elect a new National Assembly in what was the country’s ninth general election in 16 years and the sixth …

  • Policy Analysis
    IranSecurity and Defense

    Iran-Israel Drone Competition and the Changing Nature of Warfare in the Middle East

    Oct 13, 2022Bishara A. Bahbah

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones, have been widely used in recent armed conflicts, particularly in the Middle East. Their low cost and…

  • Viewpoint
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEnergy and Economics

    With Friends Like These: OPEC’s Oil Production and US-Gulf Relations

    Oct 7, 2022Imad K. Harb

    In a move that will certainly have serious political and economic repercussions in the United States and around the world, OPEC+, a group of oil-producing nati…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Israeli Elections: A Fifth Attempt at Forming a Stable Government

    Oct 6, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    Once again, and for the fifth time in four years, Israel is on the brink of an election, and is facing the all-too-familiar prospect of political deadlock—even…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranProtests and Activism

    Iran’s Ongoing Protests: Potential Scenarios During a Dangerous Time

    Sep 30, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    To adapt the famous opening line of Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, it may be said that while all states are paradoxical, every state is paradoxical in its own wa…

  • Policy Analysis
    Climate and Environment

    Climate Change and Migration in the Middle East and North Africa

    Sep 29, 2022Heba Gowayed

    A common refrain among activists advocating for a better, more globally-focused climate policy is that climate change is a global crisis. As former Secretary-G…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeySecurity and Defense

    Turkey’s Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in Iraq

    Sep 28, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    Head of Turkey's National Intelligence Organization Hakan Fidan’s recent visit to Baghdad was an attempt to heal wounds that were opened during a diplomatic ro…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    Iran’s Cautious Stance on Iraq’s Current Political Crisis

    Sep 27, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    Iraqi politicians have repeatedly failed to form a government in the eleven months that have passed since the country’s October 2021 elections, in large part d…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaGlobal Health and Health Policy

    The Captagon Problem in Saudi Arabia and Other Gulf States

    Over the past decade, the amphetamine fenethylline, widely known by the brand name Captagon, has increasingly become the drug of choice among the youth in Gulf…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Biden Administration Must Press for Accountability and Justice for Shireen Abu Akleh

    Sep 22, 2022Jonathan Kuttab

    On September 5, the Israeli Army released the long-awaited results of its investigation into the murder of Palestinian American journalist Shireen Abu Akleh by…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaUS Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Syria Policy: Steady Non-commitment and Persistent Failure

    Sep 20, 2022Nabeel Khoury

    The Biden administration’s Syria policy, as well as its policy for the Middle East in general, stems from priorities and practices set in place during the eigh…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaMigrants, Refugees, and IDPs

    Syria Is Not Ready to Repatriate Displaced Syrians

    Sep 20, 2022Hannah Jacobs

    By 2015, over four million Syrians had fled the country’s civil war and arrived in neighboring countries, in Europe, and beyond. Today, the number of displaced…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranUS Foreign Policy

    No Plan B for the US as Geostrategic Shifts Threaten to Scuttle Iran Nuclear Deal

    Sep 20, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    What a difference a few days can make in the Middle East. On August 28 National Security Council Spokesperson John Kirby addressed the diplomatic maneuvering t…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptEnergy and Economics

    The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam: Limited Options for a Resolution

    Sep 16, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    On August 12, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that his country has now completed the third filling of the reservoir behind its controversial Gran…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    US Silence Enables Israel’s Crackdown on Civil Society Organizations

    Sep 16, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    Nearly one month after the Israeli military raided the offices of seven Palestinian civil society organizations—its latest step in an escalating campaign of re…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    New Israeli Regulations Pave the Way for the Ethnic Cleansing of Area C of the West Bank

    Sep 13, 2022Jonathan Kuttab

    The current situation in the occupied West Bank reflects an ever-growing Israeli effort to take over large parts of Area C and to remove as much of its Palesti…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonEnergy and Economics

    Lebanon Struggles to Pick up the Pieces After the Beirut Port Explosion

    Sep 9, 2022Yara M. Asi

    Lebanon’s independence in 1943 formally ended a 23-year French mandate backed by the League of Nations, a period that saw the consolidation of the country’s cu…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEducation and Development

    Women’s Education at Western Universities in Qatar and the UAE

    Sep 9, 2022Alainna Liloia

    As more and more western universities set up branch campuses in Gulf Arab states, many women are finding themselves with greater opportunities than ever before…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonEnergy and Economics

    An Update on the Lebanon-Israel Border Dispute

    Sep 7, 2022Imad K. Harb

    As the summer comes to a close, indirect negotiations to demarcate the maritime border between Lebanon and Israel continue apace. Although US mediator Amos Hoc…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranReligion and Politics

    Assault on Salman Rushdie Generates Diplomatic and Political Tremors

    Sep 2, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    It will probably never be known whether the 24-year-old Lebanese American man who repeatedly stabbed world-renowned author Salman Rushdie on August 12 acted wi…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaClimate and Environment

    Confronting Water Scarcity in North Africa

    Aug 31, 2022Achref Chibani

    North African communities have a long history of water management and governance. From millennia-old underground water channels and other methods of water stor…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    Gauging Gulf Responses to President Biden’s Middle East Diplomacy

    Aug 31, 2022Jon Hoffman

    When examining how the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) perceived and reacted to US President Joe Biden’s July visit to the Middle East, the Gulf …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelGlobal Health and Health Policy

    First, Do No Harm? The World Health Organization in the MENA Region

    Aug 26, 2022Yara M. Asi

    In June 2022, Richard Horton, the editor in chief of The Lancet, one of the world’s most well-regarded health and medical journals, published a short piece cal…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelReligion and Politics

    American Evangelicals, the Gulf States, and Israel: A Cynical Covenant

    Aug 24, 2022Mimi Kirk

    Each July, Christians United for Israel (CUFI), the largest pro-Israel organization in the United States, holds a multi-day conference that culminates in a day…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    In Iraq’s Political Stalemate, Sadr May Be in Charge

    Aug 23, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    Iraq’s political deadlock has grown more intense and complex in recent months. The stalemate that has reigned since the re-election of Speaker of Parliament Mo…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Libya’s Woes Persist in a Fractured Political Landscape

    Gregory Aftandilian examines the latest developments in Libya following the derailment of parliamentary and presidential elections and the ongoing division and…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Comparing the Palestinian and Irish-Catholic Struggles

    Aug 18, 2022Daoud Kuttab

    Daoud Kuttab compares Irish and Palestinian experiences with occupation and settlement, building on a remark made by President Biden during his July 2022 trip …

  • Policy Analysis
    US Foreign Policy

    Biden Fails to Undermine Russia and China in the Middle East

    Aug 17, 2022Charles W. Dunne

    Charles W. Dunne writes that President Biden’s July 2022 trip to the Middle East to reassert American supremacy in the region and among US allies ran into the …

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Erdoğan Bets on “Turkish Exceptionalism”

    Aug 17, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    Mustafa Gurbuz analyzes Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s calculations as he increases his cooperation with Russian President Vladimir Putin, despite Tu…

  • Policy Analysis
    MauritaniaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Slavery in Mauritania: The Long Road to Real Emancipation

    Aug 16, 2022Amal Ghazal

    Amal Ghazal discusses the history of slavery in Mauritania, which was officially abolished in 1981, but which regardless remains a political, economic, and soc…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Israel’s Ethnic Cleansing of Palestinians in the West Bank

    Aug 12, 2022Ben White

    Ben White discusses how Israel’s practice of denying building permits, demolishing homes, and attacking civil society organizations in Area C of the occupied W…

  • Policy Analysis
    US Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Embrace of Arab Autocrats Ends Hopes for Democracy in the Middle East

    Aug 10, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    Khalil al-Anani writes that President Biden’s recent meetings with the leaders of Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the UAE sent a clear message to the world’s authorit…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    Iraq’s Political Crisis: A Country Adrift in Chaos

    Aug 10, 2022Rend Al-Rahim

    Rend Al-Rahim discusses the latest events in Iraqi politics, including the Sadrist Movement’s political maneuvering and its incitement of street protests that …

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia’s Three Post-Referendum Political Scenarios

    Aug 8, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg offers three potential political scenarios for Tunisia following the country's July 25 referendum on a new constitution that President Kais Sai…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelEducation and Development

    International Aid to the Palestinians: Between Politicization and Development

    Aug 4, 2022Omar Shaban

    Following the signing of the Oslo Accords between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1993, an international conference was held in Washington …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelSecurity and Defense

    A Developing Authoritarian-Israeli Nexus in the Middle East

    Aug 3, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Authoritarianism in the Arab world has assumed many shapes and shades in the decades since the end of formal European colonialism in the mid-twentieth century.…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    An Update on Israel’s Terrorist Designation for Palestinian Civil Society Organizations

    Aug 3, 2022Jonathan Kuttab

    In October 2021, Israel’s Defense Ministry issued an order designating six prominent Palestinian civil society groups and NGOs as terrorist organizations. This…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Contenders for a Post-Abbas Palestinian Presidency

    Aug 3, 2022Bishara A. Bahbah

    Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas’s health has been the subject of speculation for some time, especially since he has been afflicted by both prostate cancer …

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfClimate and Environment

    Sand and Dust Storms in the MENA Region: A Problem Awaiting Mitigation

    Jul 29, 2022Achref Chibani

    The cities of the Arabian Gulf are presented as the epitome of the hypermodern urban environment. Skyscrapers made of concrete, steel, and glass shimmer in the…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Yemen’s Prospects for Unity Are Uncertain after Many Years of War

    Jul 28, 2022Afrah Nasser

    In 2018, the United Nations Security Council’s Panel of Experts on Yemen suggested that the Yemeni State had begun to fragment as a result of a conflict that i…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranUS Foreign Policy

    US Diplomacy with Iran Is Needed to Achieve Security in the Middle East

    Jul 28, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    Now that President Joe Biden has completed his trip to the Middle East, his administration will likely make one last bid to revive the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, …

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Mohammed bin Salman’s Political Precarity Persists, Despite Perceived Successes

    The paths of US President Joe Biden and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) crossed briefly on July 15 and 16 when Biden stopped in Jeddah, Saudi Arab…

  • Policy Analysis
    Global Health and Health Policy

    Advancement and Inequity in the Arab World’s Medical and Pharmaceutical Sectors

    Jul 25, 2022Yara M. Asi

    The disparity between efforts to invest in a growing healthcare sector and the minimal public health services afforded to the Arab world’s populations provides…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Trip to the Middle East Failed to Serve US Interests

    Jul 22, 2022Jon Hoffman

    With President Joe Biden concluding his Middle East visit, many in the United States are left wondering what tangible benefits the American people gained as a …

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    Reflections on President Biden’s Predictably Disappointing Middle East Trip

    Jul 21, 2022Imad K. Harb Khalil E. Jahshan Laurie King Rend Al-Rahim

    US President Joe Biden visited Israel, Palestine, and Saudi Arabia from July 13 to 16 to meet with various regional leaders. This was Biden’s first visit as pr…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonDemocracy and Governance

    Lebanon’s Upcoming Presidential Race Is Riddled with Uncertainty

    Jul 21, 2022Nabeel Khoury

    Amid political chaos, economic collapse, a dearth of public services, and shortages of basic foods and medications, Lebanon is nonetheless slated to hold anoth…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iraq-Jordan-Egypt Entente Moves Ahead Despite the GCC’s Shadow

    In recent years, Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan have come together to form a sort of alliance based on shared security, political, and economic interests. Since 2019,…

  • Policy Analysis

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Jul 18, 2022Peyton Dashiell

    Senators Leahy, Sanders, and Warren introduced a resolution to remove US forces from the Saudi-led war coalition in Yemen. Under the War Powers Act, the presid…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia’s New Constitution Will Hasten the Country’s Transition to Autocracy

    Jul 14, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    The gathering storm provoked by Tunisian President Kais Saied’s attempt to forge a new political system could reach a critical moment on July 25. On that day T…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptDemocracy and Governance

    Egypt’s National Dialogue: Real Change or Merely a Mirage?

    Jul 13, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    Sisi’s call for a national dialogue could break through Egypt’s political stasis. However, there are several reasons to believe otherwise.

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyMigrants, Refugees, and IDPs

    Syrian Refugees in Turkey Face an Uncertain Future

    Jul 12, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    In the early hours of July 1, 2022, Turkish sources reported on a story of undocumented immigrants fleeing the Osmaniye Refugee Camp in southern Turkey. That s…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonEnergy and Economics

    Little to Show After Two Years of Tense Lebanese-Israeli Maritime Border Negotiations

    Jul 8, 2022Laury Haytayan

    Lebanon and Israel have frequently been at odds during their nearly two years of negotiations over the two countries’ Mediterranean maritime border, with diffi…

  • Policy Analysis
    US Domestic Politics and Elections

    Democratic Congressional Primaries Will Impact US Middle East Policy

    President Joe Biden is only months away from his first midterm election as commander in chief, and with many analysts projecting potentially historic losses fo…

  • Viewpoint
    LibyaDemocracy and Governance

    Libya’s Belligerent Elites May Doom the Country’s Future

    Jul 5, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Once again, Libya is falling victim to its political elites’ failure to agree on a long-awaited election mechanism and constitutional provisions that would sec…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Horn of AfricaGlobal Health and Health Policy

    Child Marriage and Female Genital Mutilation in the MENA Region

    Jul 1, 2022Yara M. Asi

    On June 20, 2022, Egyptian college student Naira Ashraf was beaten and murdered by a man who had harassed and stalked her for years, despite her repeated rejec…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    Iraq’s Opposition Builds a Blueprint for Dismantling a Corrupt Sectarian System

    Jun 28, 2022Zahraa Alribeawi

    Iraqi politicians’ continued failure to form a functioning government calls for a reexamination of the country’s current political system, al-muhasasa al-ta'if…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Here We Go Again: Israeli Government Collapses

    Jun 28, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    The Israeli Knesset once again voted to dissolve itself, setting the stage for new elections this fall, which will be the country’s fifth in just three years. …

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantProtests and Activism

    The Political Transformation of Protest Movements in Iraq and Lebanon

    Jun 24, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    Despite the limited achievements of Iraq and Lebanon's recently-established protest movements compared to their stated objectives, the movements’ small gains m…