• Policy Analysis
    Tunisia

    Saied’s New Decree Deepens Tunisia’s Crisis

    Oct 7, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Two telling events unfolded in Tunisia on October 3rd. The first was a demonstration by thousands of flag-waving citizens proclaiming their support for Preside…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptSecurity and Defense

    Growing Relations between Egypt and Russia: Strategic Alliance or Marriage of Convenience?

    Sep 27, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On August 22nd, Egypt’s Minister of Defense and Military Production Mohammad Zaki made a trip to Russia with a high-level military delegation. Zaki attended th…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Arab Women Political Prisoners Jailed by US Middle East Allies

    Sep 9, 2021Sahar Khamis

    When President Joe Biden was sworn in on January 20th as the 46th president of the United States, America’s friends in particular hoped that his administration…

  • Policy Analysis
    MoroccoDemocracy and Governance

    Morocco Consolidates Its Authoritarianism

    Aug 26, 2021Houda Chograni

    Al-hogra, a North African colloquial term meaning humiliation, degradation, and abasement, drove another vulnerable Moroccan to self-immolate out of utter powe…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Risky Business: Kais Saied’s Regional Alliances

    Aug 20, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Three weeks after President Kais Saied used Article 80 of the constitution to impose what can be called a ‘state of exceptionalism,’ Tunisians are waiting for …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptEnergy and Economics

    Will Egypt Live with GERD as a Bitter Reality?

    Aug 19, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On July 19, Ethiopia announced that it had completed the second filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). This unilateral step had been rejected b…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Kais Saied Can Either Save or Destroy Tunisia’s Democracy

    Jul 27, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    The political earthquake that rocked Tunisia July 25th—65 years after the country’s independence from France—seems all too familiar. Declaring that he was dete…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Moroccan Normalization with Israel: Temporary Deal or Permanent Peace?

    Jul 8, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On June 16, 2021, King Mohammed VI of Morocco sent a congratulatory letter to Israel’s new prime minister, Naftali Bennett. This might not have been surprising…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaDemocracy and Governance

    Algeria Reestablishes Authoritarianism through Elections

    Jul 1, 2021Imad K. Harb

    On June 12, Algeria held an early parliamentary election whose results reflected both Algerian voters’ apathy about the system they inherited from former Presi…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Doubts Surround Egypt’s Draft National Human Rights Strategy

    Jun 24, 2021Charles W. Dunne

    Long hounded by international criticism of its deteriorating human rights record, the government of Egypt is preparing to respond by launching a new national h…

  • Policy Analysis
    MoroccoConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Polisario Front, Morocco, and the Western Sahara Conflict

    Jun 22, 2021Houda Chograni

    The simmering 46-year-old conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front over the disputed territory of Western Sahara, a Northwest African area of around 25…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaDemocracy and Governance

    The Challenges and Opportunities in Libya Today

    Jun 14, 2021Imad K. Harb

    After the uprising against former strongman Muammar Qadhafi in 2011, Libya’s road to stability and order—let alone to full democratic governance—has not been s…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Explaining Egypt’s Role during the Gaza War

    Jun 3, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On May 21, 2021, a cease-fire agreement was reached between Israel and Hamas after an 11-day military confrontation. Egypt played a vital role in securing the …

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Is Tunisia’s President Endangering Democracy?

    May 7, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Recently, Tunisia has witnessed a political dynamic that is all too rare in the Arab world: Islamists have joined forces with some secularly oriented Members o…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia’s Revolution Has Neglected the Country’s Youth

    May 3, 2021Houda Chograni

    Since the desperate act of self-immolation of 26-year-old Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a marginalized city in the center of Tunisia, on December 17, 2010, …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptDemocracy and Governance

    Failures of Authoritarian Governance in Egypt

    Apr 28, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On March 23, the world's attention turned to Egypt as traffic in the strategic Suez Canal was disrupted after the 400-meter container ship, the Ever Given, ran…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaProtests and Activism

    Democratic Transition in Algeria: The Regime-Hirak Face-off

    Apr 19, 2021Louisa Dris-Aït Hamadouche

    For the first time in its history, Algeria is experiencing a political uprising that began in 2019 and is characterized as inclusive, peaceful, popular, and re…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Libyan Interim Government: Hopes and Challenges

    Apr 6, 2021ACW Research and Analysis Unit

    Libya has suffered years of violence and volatility. Recently, Libyan delegates to a conference in Geneva approved the re-formation of two entities: the Presid…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptDemocracy and Governance

    An Old, Ongoing Struggle: Domesticating Religious Institutions in Egypt

    Apr 2, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    The relationship between religion and the state is controversial and problematic in the Arab world, particularly with the absence of clear demarcations that co…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkish-Egyptian Reconciliation Efforts Echo a Shifting Regional Order

    Mar 26, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Over the past month, Turkey has taken steps to restore diplomatic relations with Egypt. That President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has spearheaded this effort is para…

  • Policy Analysis
    Levant

    Egypt’s Ties to Israel Deepen Despite Public Misgivings

    The Egyptian government has deepened its cooperation with Israel on strategic and economic matters in order to root out the extremist threat in the Sinai Penin…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Cautious Optimism a Decade after Libya’s Revolution

    Mar 5, 2021Imad K. Harb

    The Arab Spring protests that started 10 years ago in Libya and the ensuing collapse of the Muammar Qadhafi regime set in motion a decade of instability that c…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptProtests and Activism

    Ten Years Later: Reflections on Egypt’s 2011 Uprising

    Feb 19, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    Khalil al-Anani appraises the January 2011 Egyptian revolution that led to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak. He writes that the revolutionary forces …

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia’s Multiple Crises Threaten Its Brittle Democracy

    Feb 16, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    On January 26, Tunisia witnessed a scene that echoed the dramatic events of January 6 in Washington, DC. Outside the Tunisian parliament in Tunis, hundreds of …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egyptian-Saudi Relations: Strategic Ties with Some Political Strains

    Egypt and Saudi Arabia continue to be strategic partners in the Middle East, buoyed by shared interests and certain threat perceptions. Saudi Arabia values Egy…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt’s Changing policy in Libya: Opportunities and Challenges

    Jan 21, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On December 27, 2020, a high-ranking Egyptian diplomatic and security delegation visited the Libyan capital of Tripoli to hold talks with the United Nations-ba…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    China’s Belt and Road Initiative and US Middle East Policy

    Jan 13, 2021Charles W. Dunne

    More than seven years after Chinese President Xi Jinping announced his country’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), the vast infrastructure and economic developme…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    As 2021 Begins, Rival Populisms Menace Tunisia’s Democracy

    Jan 8, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Ten years after Tunisia’s “Jasmine Revolution” sparked grassroots uprisings in Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, and Syria, the pressures of an economic crisis, rampant c…

  • Viewpoint
    MoroccoJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Morocco’s Unmissed Opportunity in the Western Sahara

    Dec 21, 2020Mohamed Daadaoui

    In a final act by his administration, President Donald Trump announced that Morocco and Israel will normalize relations, making the kingdom the fourth Arab cou…

  • Policy Analysis
    MoroccoUS Foreign Policy

    Morocco, Too, Signs on to Trump’s Lawlessness

    Dec 11, 2020Imad K. Harb

    Morocco became the fourth Arab country to normalize relations with Israel without linking the move to progress regarding Palestine. In fact, the agreement had …

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaUS Foreign Policy

    The Complications Confronting Biden in Northwest Africa

    Dec 2, 2020Imad K. Harb

    Following four years of American disarray and the absence of an effective foreign policy, the Joe Biden presidency faces both serious challenges in dealing wit…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaUS Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Challenges in Stabilizing Libya

    Dec 2, 2020Karim Mezran Emadeddin Badi

    Upon assuming power, President Joe Biden and his administration will face a still-chaotic Libya despite the many political maneuverings afoot among Libyans and…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptUS Foreign Policy

    The Biden Administration and Egypt: A New Course or Business as Usual?

    Dec 1, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Since the announcement of Joe Biden’s victory in the US election, a state of anxiety and unease has gripped Egypt. President Abdel-Fattah el-Sisi will now lose…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaUS Foreign Policy

    What Can Tunisia Expect from a Biden Administration?

    Dec 1, 2020Sarah Yerkes

    Like most of its North African neighbors, Tunisia saw little attention from the Trump Administration, compared to other parts of the Middle East such as Egypt,…

  • Viewpoint
    Morocco

    Does Arab Public Opinion on Palestine Still Count in 2020?

    Nov 18, 2020Khalil E. Jahshan

    Although public opinion research in the Arab world has evolved significantly in recent years, it does not seem to be taken seriously by American policymakers i…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptProtests and Activism

    Protests of the Poor in Egypt: Causes and Implications

    Oct 21, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    On September 20th, a series of anti-government demonstrations broke out in a number of Egyptian governorates and villages protesting the social and economic co…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt-Iraq-Jordan Alliance Tries to Change Middle East Dynamics

    Sep 16, 2020Curtis R. Ryan

    On August 25, 2020, the leaders of Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan met in Amman for the third in a succession of meetings marking ever-closer relations between the thr…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaGlobal Health and Health Policy

    North African Autocrats Use the Pandemic to Expand Power, Settle Scores

    Sep 15, 2020Charles W. Dunne

    Many months have passed since the novel coronavirus epidemic began, with wide-ranging and often devastating health, economic, and social ramifications. The pol…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptViolent Extremism

    Egypt’s Counterterrorism Strategy in Sinai: Challenges and Failures

    Aug 28, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Looking at Egypt’s counterterrorism strategy against the Sinai insurgency, Khalil al-Anani writes that it is counterproductive and creates fertile ground for e…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and Egypt’s Military Options

    Jul 30, 2020Charles W. Dunne

    With talks between Egypt and Ethiopia failing to break the impasse over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, Charles W. Dunne evaluates Cairo’s military option…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Political Crisis, Regional Power Struggles, and Creeping Presidentialism in Tunisia

    Jul 29, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Analyzing Tunisia’s political problems, Daniel Brumberg writes that nearly a decade into the country’s democratic experiment, many of its leaders appear incapa…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaUS Foreign Policy

    By Sanctioning Turkey’s Role in Libya, Trump Emboldens Erdoğan in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Jul 10, 2020Joe Macaron

    Evaluating the Trump Administration's policy toward Libya, Joe Macaron writes that from giving a green light to Haftar to march toward Tripoli to endorsing Tur…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Understanding Egypt’s Strategy in Libya

    Jul 8, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Khalil al-Anani discounts the chances for a direct Egyptian military intervention in Libya despite the dangers of instability and chaos there and their impact …

  • Policy Analysis

    Water Conflict Between Egypt and Ethiopia: A Defining Moment for Both Countries

    Jun 16, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Khalil al-Anani discusses the dispute over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam project between Egypt and Ethiopia and argues that it constitutes a turning poin…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptDemocracy and Governance

    Politics of COVID-19 in Egypt: Between Repression and Opportunism

    May 12, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    The Egyptian regime's medical assistance to the United States and other countries during the coronavirus pandemic is meant to mollify international criticism o…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Haftar’s Secession Must Not Stand

    May 2, 2020Imad K. Harb

    General Haftar's unilateral abrogation of the 2015 Skhirat Agreement is illegal and that his secession in areas under his control paves the way for Libya's dis…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaDemocracy and Governance

    COVID-19 Promises Algeria Uncertainty, Danger, and—Perhaps—Opportunity

    Apr 23, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg discusses the political and economic circumstances surrounding the Algerian military's handling of the coronavirus epidemic, using the situatio…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Libya: Between Proxy War and International Failure

    Apr 14, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    The domestic, regional, and international players of the Libyan conflict continue to fuel the civil war nine years after the toppling of Muammar Qadhafi.

  • Policy Analysis
    MoroccoDemocracy and Governance

    Morocco: Despite Some Progress, Many Challenges Remain

    Mar 31, 2020Nabeel A. Khoury

    Nabeel Khoury discusses Morocco's political and economic conditions and cautions its elite to use the opportunity of the current social calm engendered by the …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt-Turkey Strained Relations: Implications for Regional Security

    Mar 18, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Egyptian-Turkish tensions over influence, Libya, the eastern Mediterranean, and the Gulf region have increased regional insecurity and require de-escalation an…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    State Terror in Egypt: Is It Time for Accountability?

    Feb 28, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    This article by Khaill Al-Anani examines the Egyptian regime’s tools for such repression and the lack of pressure by western governments to hold it accountable…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptProtests and Activism

    Egypt’s Puzzling Dilemma: Escalating Challenges and Obstructed Mobilization

    Feb 20, 2020Sahar Khamis

    Egypt’s widening economic and social gaps may lead the regime to adopt harsher measures of political control.

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Post-Election Blues in Tunisia: Implications at Home and Abroad

    Feb 10, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    The fate of Tunisia’s democracy may depend on the leadership of President Saied who, until 2019, neither played a political role nor had links to the existing …

  • Book Review
    EgyptUS Foreign Policy

    Bunker Diplomacy by Nabeel Khoury

    Feb 10, 2020Imad K. Harb

    In his review of Nabeel Khoury’s book, Bunker Diplomacy: An Arab-American in the U.S. Foreign Service, Imad K. Harb highlights the author’s frankness about sen…

  • From our Affiliates
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkey’s Growing Role in Libya: Motives, Background, and Responses

    Jan 9, 2020Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    There are fears that external interventions in Libya may prolong its conflict and threaten the future and territorial integrity of the country. Read this analy…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Is Turkey Playing with Fire in Libya?

    Jan 6, 2020Mustafa Gurbuz

    Turkish troops aim to buttress Libya's Government of National Accord, but escalating tensions in the Mediterranean may actually harm both Ankara and Tripoli.

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Libya-Turkey Memorandum of Understanding: Local and Regional Repercussions

    Jan 2, 2020Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The signing of the Libyan-Turkish memorandum of understanding on maritime sovereignty in the Eastern Mediterranean has coincided with increased tensions both w…

  • From our Affiliates
    AlgeriaDemocracy and Governance

    Could the Presidential Elections Constitute a Milestone for Algeria?

    Dec 18, 2019Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    Tebboune’s presidential test in the coming months will be in his ability to gain the confidence of Algerians in general, and the popular movement in particular.

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaUS Foreign Policy

    The Trump Administration Tries a New Policy in Libya

    Washington is now firmly pressing Libyan strongman Khalifa Haftar to stop his offensive on Tripoli and allow for a negotiated settlement with the GNA. With so …

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaDemocracy and Governance

    Algeria’s Upcoming Elections Are Not the End of the Road

    Dec 3, 2019Imad K. Harb

    The military-imposed presidential election in Algeria should not deter the protesters from pressing on with their demand for radical political and economic cha…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LibyaUS Foreign Policy

    The Conflict in Libya Resurfaces on Washington’s Agenda

    Nov 27, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery discusses the renewed interest in both Congress and the Trump Administration to address the ongoing conflict in Libya and asks whether the Un…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Closer Egyptian-Russian Relations Causing a Headache in Washington

    Gregory Aftandilian states that US officials are warning Egypt not to move ahead with the purchase of advanced Russian jet fighters; however, developing ties b…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaProtests and Activism

    Protests in the Arab World: The Second Wave

    Nov 8, 2019Marina Ottaway

    Marina Ottaway argues that protesters in Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, and Iraq appear to be more sophisticated than those of the 2011 uprisings and understand that…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaDemocracy and Governance

    The Tunisian Elections: Surprise Results and Challenges Ahead

    Oct 21, 2019Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    Tunisia after its elections will be ruled by a governmental coalition the nature of which will depend on the relationship between the new president and the new…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantDemocracy and Governance

    By Electing Kais Saied, Tunisians Recast Their National Politics

    Oct 17, 2019Daniel Brumberg

    The Tunisian electorate has handed the independent candidate Kais Saied a huge victory. With 73 percent of the vote against Nabil Karoui’s 27 percent, he now h…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Algeria’s Standoff between Protesters and the Regime

    There is a dangerous standoff in Algeria between the protesters, who are demanding regime change, and the military establishment, which wants to maintain the s…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaDemocracy and Governance

    Presidential Elections in Tunisia: Reading the First Round Results

    Sep 25, 2019Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The results of the first round of the 2019 presidential elections in Tunisia represent an early crisis for a regime marked by the fragmentation of the party ma…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptDemocracy and Governance

    Egypt’s Protests: A Sign the Arab Spring Is Alive

    Sep 24, 2019Imad K. Harb

    Although the protests today are unlike those that garnered millions at public squares in 2011, the struggle of the Egyptian people against repression remains a…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia’s Presidential Election: Populism Rules the Day

    Tunisia’s presidential election shows the democratic transition moving apace, although Tunisians are shunning political parties and elites who failed to improv…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Congress Highlights Human Rights Abuses and Humanitarian Crises

    Sep 18, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery highlights congressional work on bringing attention to human rights abuses and humanitarian crises in the Middle East as the Trump Administra…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Libya’s Stalemate Could Lead to Dreaded Partition

    Sep 17, 2019Imad K. Harb

    While domestic competition and outside intervention are fueling the dangerous Libyan conflict, General Haftar’s challenge to the GNA and rejection of UN mediat…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia Struggles to Project Foreign Policy Independence

    Aug 22, 2019Daniel Brumberg

    Tunisia’s leaders would do well to balance their hopes for democracy and human rights with the pragmatic exigencies of an independent foreign policy that prote…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptEnergy and Economics

    Positive Economic Growth in Egypt Belies Mounting Problems

    Opening up the political and economic systems in Egypt would allow for sustained private sector growth and a free flow of ideas—and criticism—that would keep t…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Aug 21, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery posits that after Congresswomen Rashida Tlaib and Ilhan Omar were barred entry to Israel and the Palestinian territories, will House Democrat…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaDemocracy and Governance

    Tunisia’s Fragile Democracy after Essebsi

    Aug 2, 2019Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg argues that Tunisia’s Essebsi leaves behind a political crisis that is partly rooted in a convoluted constitutional language that does not clea…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Arab Spring May Still Be Alive in Northwestern Africa

    Jul 25, 2019Charles W. Dunne

    The popular uprisings and challenges to the regimes in Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania indicate that the Arab Spring may not have ended and that authoritarian…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Saudi-Emirati-Egyptian Alliance Steering US Middle East Policy

    Jun 26, 2019Charles W. Dunne

    With the American retreat from the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Egypt are presenting themselves as reliable allies. However, they are pursuing an ag…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptDemocracy and Governance

    Morsi’s Death: Conflicting Narratives, Escalating Repression, Deepening Polarization

    Jun 25, 2019Sahar Khamis

    Former President Mohamed Morsi’s death is emblematic of continuing government repression and unchecked violations of human rights in Egypt that threaten the li…

  • Policy Analysis
    AlgeriaDemocracy and Governance

    A Dangerous Algerian Struggle against Uncertainty

    Jun 21, 2019Imad K. Harb

    A multilateral dialogue involving different segments of society and moderate military elements is imperative to end the current stalemate and lay the foundatio…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    IranDemocracy and Governance

    Is Bernie Sanders the Best American Hope for Palestine?

    Senator Bernie Sanders dispatched his advisor to Ramallah last week to speak with the PLO, eliciting support from the pro-Palestine camp. Is Sanders a true all…