• Policy Analysis
    LebanonDemocracy and Governance

    Foreign Influence in Lebanon and the Third Miqati Premiership

    Oct 13, 2021Joe Macaron

    For the third time in 16 years, Prime Minister Najib Miqati comes to office as a consensus candidate in a country with deep divisions within the Lebanese polit…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Erbil Conference: Iraq Rejects Normalizing with Israel

    On September 24th, some 300 Iraqi tribal and political leaders, mostly from Iraq’s six Sunni-majority governorates, met at a conference in Erbil, capital of th…

  • Policy Analysis
    Justice, Equality, and Human Rights

    A “Crisis of Relevance”: UN Failures in the MENA Region

    Oct 5, 2021Yara M. Asi

    On September 21, 2021, in front of the same green marble tile where many of his predecessors and other prominent world leaders have spoken, US President Joe Bi…

  • Viewpoint
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Syria’s Return to the Arab League Is Imminent

    Oct 5, 2021Imad K. Harb

    A decade after the start of the Syrian revolution against authoritarian rule and the suspension of Syria’s membership in the League of Arab States, the country…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptSecurity and Defense

    Growing Relations between Egypt and Russia: Strategic Alliance or Marriage of Convenience?

    Sep 27, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On August 22nd, Egypt’s Minister of Defense and Military Production Mohammad Zaki made a trip to Russia with a high-level military delegation. Zaki attended th…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    A New Strategic Architecture Is Emerging in the Gulf

    Sep 24, 2021Imad K. Harb

    As the Gulf crisis of 2017 recedes into memory, following the reconciliation in January at the “solidarity and stability” summit in Saudi Arabia’s al-Ula on th…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iran’s Hard-liners Pursue a Complex Resistance Strategy

    Sep 23, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    While the election of Ebrahim Raisi to the Iranian presidency and the appointment of Hossein Amir-Abdollahian as foreign minister signal a clear victory for th…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Southwestern Syria Tests US-Russia Cooperation

    Sep 22, 2021Joe Macaron

    The US-Russian agreement of July 2017 that led to a fragile stability in southwestern Syria has recently unraveled, testing President Joe Biden’s approach in S…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    A Saudi-Iranian Rapprochement Still Has a Long Way to Go

    Talks in Baghdad between officials of Saudi Arabia and Iran, which have been held periodically since April, have fueled speculation that these two regional pow…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iran Prepares for a New “Great Game” in Afghanistan

    Sep 2, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Until the horrific August 26 attack outside Kabul’s Hamid Karzai International Airport, Iran’s bottom line on a new Afghan political order was in fact similar …

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Kadhimi Tries to Boost His Domestic Standing

    Sep 1, 2021Imad K. Harb

    As a basic principle, foreign policy serves as an extension of a country’s domestic politics and an instrument wielded by policy-makers to enhance their domest…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkey’s Relentless Bid for Afghanistan

    Aug 31, 2021Mustafa Gurbuz

    The Taliban’s astonishing seizure of all of Afghanistan dashed the Turkish government’s earlier hope to take charge of Kabul Airport. Turkey’s President Recep …

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Risky Business: Kais Saied’s Regional Alliances

    Aug 20, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Three weeks after President Kais Saied used Article 80 of the constitution to impose what can be called a ‘state of exceptionalism,’ Tunisians are waiting for …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptEnergy and Economics

    Will Egypt Live with GERD as a Bitter Reality?

    Aug 19, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On July 19, Ethiopia announced that it had completed the second filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). This unilateral step had been rejected b…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    King Abdullah’s Visit: Resetting American-Jordanian Relations

    Jul 22, 2021Curtis Ryan

    On July 19, 2021, King Abdullah II of Jordan became the first Arab leader to visit President Joe Biden at the White House. The symbolism alone was significant,…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Hamas and Its Regional Role Post-Gaza War

    Jul 21, 2021Joe Macaron

    As the Palestinian Authority, with Fatah at its core, is struggling to redefine its legitimacy and mandate, Hamas is emerging as a key player in the post-Gaza …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Moroccan Normalization with Israel: Temporary Deal or Permanent Peace?

    Jul 8, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On June 16, 2021, King Mohammed VI of Morocco sent a congratulatory letter to Israel’s new prime minister, Naftali Bennett. This might not have been surprising…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Is a Saudi-Emirati Rift on the Horizon?

    Jul 7, 2021Imad K. Harb

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) appears to be approaching another unwelcome rift, this time between its two most vocal and influential members, Saudi Arabia…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Oman’s Diplomatic Agenda in Yemen

    Jun 30, 2021Giorgio Cafiero

    A flurry of diplomatic activities and high-level meetings between Omani officials and their counterparts from Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Russia, the United Sta…

  • Policy Analysis
    Regional Relations and Geopolitics

    US-Russian Cooperation in the Middle East after the Biden-Putin Summit

    Jun 24, 2021Joe Macaron

    The June 16 summit between President Joe Biden and his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, was meant to defuse tensions between the United States and Russia, …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Explaining Egypt’s Role during the Gaza War

    Jun 3, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On May 21, 2021, a cease-fire agreement was reached between Israel and Hamas after an 11-day military confrontation. Egypt played a vital role in securing the …

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaUS Foreign Policy

    The Biden Administration and the GCC Rapprochement with Damascus

    May 27, 2021Joe Macaron

    With Syrian President Bashar al-Assad on his way to a fourth term in the Syrian presidential election held this week, Moscow is expected to resume its diplomat…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iran Plays a Diplomatically Cautious (and Smart) Game on Gaza

    May 22, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    It’s not every day that Hamas leaders openly plead for Tehran’s support. But this is apparently  what happened when, as the battle between Gaza’s militant grou…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Contingencies Undergird Saudi Foreign Policy

    A flurry of diplomatic outreach involving Iran, Syria, and Turkey, and a continuing warming of relations with other Gulf countries, have sparked questions over…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Will the Natanz Incident Produce Maximum Diplomacy?

    Apr 23, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Just two days after what appeared to be an Israeli-backed sabotage of Iran’s Natanz enrichment facilities, The Washington Post’s editorial board declared that …

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    Hezbollah in Moscow: Russia Flexes Its Diplomatic Muscles

    Apr 14, 2021Joe Macaron

    In a medium-sized van with no bodyguards, on a rainy March 15, 2021, a Hezbollah delegation quietly walked into the Russian Foreign Ministry building in Moscow…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkish-Egyptian Reconciliation Efforts Echo a Shifting Regional Order

    Mar 26, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Over the past month, Turkey has taken steps to restore diplomatic relations with Egypt. That President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has spearheaded this effort is para…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    A Timeline of the Yemen Crisis, from the 1990s to the Present

    Feb 19, 2021Marcus Montgomery

    Early Years: Saleh and the Houthis1990’s – After the reunification of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh transitions from president of North Yemen—a post he had held si…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egyptian-Saudi Relations: Strategic Ties with Some Political Strains

    Egypt and Saudi Arabia continue to be strategic partners in the Middle East, buoyed by shared interests and certain threat perceptions. Saudi Arabia values Egy…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt’s Changing policy in Libya: Opportunities and Challenges

    Jan 21, 2021Khalil Al-Anani

    On December 27, 2020, a high-ranking Egyptian diplomatic and security delegation visited the Libyan capital of Tripoli to hold talks with the United Nations-ba…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Where Can Palestinian Leaders Turn as Gulf Arabs Turn Away?

    Oct 15, 2020Yousef Munayyer

    The recent normalization agreements between the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain with Israel have sent shock waves throughout the Arab and Muslim worlds and ha…

  • Policy Analysis
    Regional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Arab League’s Many Failures

    Over its 75-year history, the 22-member League of Arab States (LAS) has declined as an organization—from one that represents and pushes for collective, purpose…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The French Initiative in Lebanon: Endgame and Challenges

    Sep 16, 2020Joe Macaron

    French President Emmanuel Macron has been leading a charm offensive in Lebanon since the August 4th Beirut explosion as Paris seeks to reinvigorate its role in…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt-Iraq-Jordan Alliance Tries to Change Middle East Dynamics

    Sep 16, 2020Curtis R. Ryan

    On August 25, 2020, the leaders of Egypt, Iraq, and Jordan met in Amman for the third in a succession of meetings marking ever-closer relations between the thr…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Russian-Turkish-Iranian Cross-Purposes on Syria’s Future

    Sep 8, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    On August 24, the United Nations-sponsored Syrian Constitutional Committee meetings reconvened in Geneva. UN Envoy Geir Peterson, the chair of the meeting, dec…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    After the Beirut Blast: Hezbollah and Iran Walk a Tricky Line

    Aug 26, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg argues that Hezbollah and Iran are vested in preserving the current political system in Lebanon whose confessional institutions enable the part…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Lebanon’s Other Problem: Neutrality in Regional Affairs

    Aug 3, 2020Imad K. Harb

    Examining Lebanon’s traditional neutrality in regional affairs, Imad K. Harb writes that Hezbollah’s push to follow Iran’s policies is placing the country in a…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and Egypt’s Military Options

    Jul 30, 2020Charles W. Dunne

    With talks between Egypt and Ethiopia failing to break the impasse over the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, Charles W. Dunne evaluates Cairo’s military option…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkey’s Activist Regional Policies Are a Double-Edged Sword

    Gregory Aftandilian explains that although Turkey has scored points in the Arab world with its support for the Palestinians, its activist posture and intervent…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iran’s Hard-liners Grapple with the Trap of Securitizing the State

    Jul 13, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg argues that Iran's hard-liners have savored the victory of last February's parliamentary elections and are now preparing for the 2021 president…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Understanding Egypt’s Strategy in Libya

    Jul 8, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Khalil al-Anani discounts the chances for a direct Egyptian military intervention in Libya despite the dangers of instability and chaos there and their impact …

  • Policy Analysis
    Regional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Middle East Settles in for a Long, Hot, and Dangerous Summer

    Jun 24, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg examines the conditions that could make this summer a dangerous period in the Middle East as contentious issues weigh heavily on competing regi…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaEnergy and Economics

    US-Russian Competition and the M4 Highway in Syria

    Jun 23, 2020Joe Macaron

    Joe Macaron argues that in Syria, implementing the Caesar Act sanctions and opening the east-west M4 Highway reflect intensified US-Russian competition while t…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Israeli Annexation Plan and Jordan’s West Bank Moment

    Jun 3, 2020Joe Macaron

    Joe Macaron argues that as Netanyahu makes plans to annex parts of the occupied West Bank, Jordan faces difficult choices in appeasing domestic critics and pre…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanThe GCC

    Jordan Maneuvers in GCC Politics to Protect Its Interests

    Despite its heavy dependence on the GCC for economic aid and employment for its workforce, Jordan has been able to pursue political positions not always in syn…

  • From our Affiliates
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    Iraq’s Al-Kazemi Government: Real Change or a Temporary Settlement?

    May 20, 2020Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The formation of the new government in Iraq may represent a window of opportunity for gradual political change that is less costly than toppling the entire reg…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaDemocracy and Governance

    A Fracture That Will Not Threaten the Assad Regime in Syria

    May 18, 2020Radwan Ziadeh

    Radwan Ziadeh discounts the long-term political repercussions of the Assad-Makhlouf dispute and writes that if the regime gets in serious trouble, the cousins …

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Iran Is Running a Custom-Made Strategy in the Levant

    May 18, 2020Joe Macaron

    Although economic pressures are forcing the Iranian regime to cut its losses in the Levant, it would be a mistake for the Trump Administration and its allies t…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranUS Foreign Policy

    Worrisome American Response to Iran in the Gulf

    Abdulwahab Al-Qassab examines the muted US response to Iranian provocations in the Arabian Gulf, surmising that it reflects poorly on the reputation of the Uni…

  • Viewpoint
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Unified Yemen May Soon Cease to Exist

    Apr 27, 2020Imad K. Harb

    With President Hadi too weak to respond to the self-rule declaration by the UAE- supported Southern Transitional Council, and Saudi Arabia too economically tro…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Libya: Between Proxy War and International Failure

    Apr 14, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    The domestic, regional, and international players of the Libyan conflict continue to fuel the civil war nine years after the toppling of Muammar Qadhafi.

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    Confusion in Iraq: A Fractious Political Process and Free-Wheeling Militias

    Abdulwahab al-Qassab highlights Iraq's current political problems and calls upon Iraqi politicians to put aside their differences and concentrate on how to avo…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanUS Foreign Policy

    Jordan and Trump’s Peace Plan

    Jordan’s relations with Israel have hit a low point following the unveiling of the Trump peace plan because of fears over annexation of Israeli settlements in …

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Russian-Turkish Tensions in Syria May Help Mend the US-Turkish Divide

    Mar 20, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg studies the intricacies of Turkey's involvement in Syria and accommodation with Russia as it simultaneously hopes to enlist the assistance of t…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Muted Arab Attempt to Restore Influence in Syria

    Mar 18, 2020Joe Macaron

    Will Arab countries be able to renew their influence in Syria given the ever-present inter-Arab rivalry and unfavorable geopolitical factors?

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egypt-Turkey Strained Relations: Implications for Regional Security

    Mar 18, 2020Khalil Al-Anani

    Egyptian-Turkish tensions over influence, Libya, the eastern Mediterranean, and the Gulf region have increased regional insecurity and require de-escalation an…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Complications for Turkey in Idlib

    Mar 17, 2020Mustafa Gurbuz

    Ankara’s options in Idlib are extremely limited as it must enforce moderation on the part of the extremists as well as address the refugee crisis.

  • From our Affiliates
    SyriaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Moscow Summit: Will the Ceasefire Hold in Idlib?

    Mar 11, 2020Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The failure of previous arrangements regarding Syria suggests that the latest ceasefire agreement between Turkey and Russia may only be temporary. Read this an…

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Russia Has Limits on Its Influence in the Middle East

    Mar 10, 2020Charles W. Dunne

    Charles W. Dunne argues that despite Russia’s success in Syria and stealthy gains in the Middle East since 2015, the limits on its capabilities have become inc…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The United States and Iran Continue to Maneuver in Iraq

    Gregory Aftandilian contends that after the very tense period of December 2019-January 2020, the United States and Iran are seeking to restore their credibilit…

  • From our Affiliates
    SyriaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Three scenarios for the battle for Idlib

    Feb 19, 2020Marwan Kabalan

    Major decisions have to be made by Turkey, Russia, and the United States in the coming weeks that may determine the next phase of the Syrian conflict.

  • Policy Analysis
    Regional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Dangerous Consequence of Marginalizing the Arab “Moderates”

    Feb 18, 2020Joe Macaron

    By prioritizing Arab-Israeli normalization in order to deter Iran, the Trump Administration is enabling Arab authoritarians and reinforcing the dangerous possi…

  • Research Paper

    Actors, Structures and Qatari Foreign Policy

    Feb 10, 2020Marwan Kabalan

    In a research paper on Qatar’s foreign policy, Marwan Kabalan concludes that a small state’s geopolitical factors and relative capabilities remain central in a…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Yemen: Order of Battle Trumps Peace

    Feb 3, 2020Nabeel A. Khoury

    Military clashes in Yemen will not advance the interests of the warring parties, cautions Nabeel Khoury, who sees that victory there is only pyrrhic amid the d…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonUS Foreign Policy

    US, Iran Prolong Détente in Lebanon with a Status Quo Cabinet

    Jan 29, 2020Joe Macaron

    Joe Macaron contends that the new Lebanese government of Hassan Diab is a continuation of the old oligarchic status quo and appears to prolong the US-Iran déte…

  • Policy Analysis
    Protests and Activism

    The battle of ‘resistance’ vs ‘revolution’ in the Middle East

    Jan 17, 2020Rami G. Khouri

    The clash between the 'resistance' and 'revolutionary' movements will define the Middle East in the future.

  • From our Affiliates
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkey’s Growing Role in Libya: Motives, Background, and Responses

    Jan 9, 2020Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    There are fears that external interventions in Libya may prolong its conflict and threaten the future and territorial integrity of the country. Read this analy…

  • Viewpoint
    IraqUS Foreign Policy

    The Coming American Defeat in Iraq

    Jan 6, 2020Marina Ottaway

    The vote by Iraq’s Parliament to force the withdrawal of American troops from the country marks the beginning of the end of the 2003 US intervention.

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Is Turkey Playing with Fire in Libya?

    Jan 6, 2020Mustafa Gurbuz

    Turkish troops aim to buttress Libya's Government of National Accord, but escalating tensions in the Mediterranean may actually harm both Ankara and Tripoli.

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Libya-Turkey Memorandum of Understanding: Local and Regional Repercussions

    Jan 2, 2020Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The signing of the Libyan-Turkish memorandum of understanding on maritime sovereignty in the Eastern Mediterranean has coincided with increased tensions both w…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The United States and Iran Readjust to New Realities in Iraq and Lebanon

    Dec 18, 2019Joe Macaron

    After 15 years of rivalry in Iraq and Lebanon, the United States and Iran are adjusting their policies based on a new reality of popular uprisings that challen…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Burgeoning Arab-Israeli Normalization? Not Quite What You Think

    Dec 11, 2019Yousef Munayyer

    Efforts to normalize relations between Arab leaders and Israel will continue to collide with the overwhelming rejection of normalization by the peoples of the …

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfThe GCC

    GCC Reconciliation Is Coming, but Pesky Issues Remain

    Dec 8, 2019Imad K. Harb

    A limited reconciliation between parties to the GCC crisis is likely to take place during the upcoming summit in Riyadh. However, certain thorny and serious po…

  • Viewpoint
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfThe GCC

    Challenges to Resolving the GCC Crisis

    Khalil E. Jahshan discusses the challenges inherent in a reconciliation between Qatar and the neighboring countries that embargoed it and precipitated the unse…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranDemocracy and Governance

    Is Iran on the Edge of a Precipice?

    Nov 27, 2019Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg questions whether the latest protests in Iran will produce a wider political movement, one that has the support of an urban professional and bu…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    With Iraq’s Mounting Chaos Spreading, Time for a US Policy Reboot

    Nov 27, 2019Charles W. Dunne

    Charles W. Dunne argues that in light of Iraq’s current crisis, the United States must take bold steps to help stabilize the country, enhance anti-corruption a…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Closer Egyptian-Russian Relations Causing a Headache in Washington

    Gregory Aftandilian states that US officials are warning Egypt not to move ahead with the purchase of advanced Russian jet fighters; however, developing ties b…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LebanonRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    America First or America Alone?

    Nov 20, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery is skeptical about the Trump Administration’s commitment to multilateral efforts to defeat the Islamic State and secure the Arabian Gulf whil…

  • From our Affiliates
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfThe GCC

    Is a resolution of the GCC crisis imminent?

    Nov 18, 2019Ibrahim Fraihat

    Ibrahim Fraihat argues that the September 14 attack on Aramco has had a significant effect on Riyadh and has forced Saudi Arabia to revise its policies toward …

  • From our Affiliates
    YemenRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Riyadh Agreement on Yemen: Arrangements and Chances of Success

    Nov 18, 2019Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The Riyadh Agreement’s success will depend in large part on the local parties’ conviction that it serves their purposes at this time more than continued war do…