• Viewpoint
    LibyaDemocracy and Governance

    Libya’s Belligerent Elites May Doom the Country’s Future

    Jul 5, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Once again, Libya is falling victim to its political elites’ failure to agree on a long-awaited election mechanism and constitutional provisions that would sec…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Horn of AfricaGlobal Health and Health Policy

    Child Marriage and Female Genital Mutilation in the MENA Region

    Jul 1, 2022Yara M. Asi

    On June 20, 2022, Egyptian college student Naira Ashraf was beaten and murdered by a man who had harassed and stalked her for years, despite her repeated rejec…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    Iraq’s Opposition Builds a Blueprint for Dismantling a Corrupt Sectarian System

    Jun 28, 2022Zahraa Alribeawi

    Iraqi politicians’ continued failure to form a functioning government calls for a reexamination of the country’s current political system, al-muhasasa al-ta'if…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Here We Go Again: Israeli Government Collapses

    Jun 28, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    The Israeli Knesset once again voted to dissolve itself, setting the stage for new elections this fall, which will be the country’s fifth in just three years. …

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantProtests and Activism

    The Political Transformation of Protest Movements in Iraq and Lebanon

    Jun 24, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    Despite the limited achievements of Iraq and Lebanon's recently-established protest movements compared to their stated objectives, the movements’ small gains m…

  • Policy Analysis
    US Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Trip to the Middle East: What Is in Store?

    Jun 23, 2022Charles W. Dunne

    President Joe Biden has finally scheduled his first trip to the Middle East as chief executive. The visit, which was postponed from June to July 13-16 because …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Palestinian Perceptions of International Threats

    Jun 23, 2022Dana El Kurd

    Despite its small size, Palestine has always played an outsized role in international politics. Palestine and the Palestinians have been a recurring theme in U…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelEnergy and Economics

    The Flaws and Failings of the World Bank’s Research on the Palestinian Economy

    Jun 21, 2022Ibrahim Shikaki

    A recent World Bank report on the Palestinian economy once again demonstrates that most research produced by international financial institutions on this topic…

  • Policy Analysis
    SudanDemocracy and Governance

    The Muddled Diplomacy of Sudan’s Tripartite Mechanism

    Jun 17, 2022Kholood Khair

    The international community was largely unprepared to deal with the fallout of Sudan’s October 2021 coup, organized by the country’s military with the support …

  • Policy Analysis
    SyriaThe War in Ukraine

    The Ukraine Crisis Further Complicates Foreign Intervention in Syria

    Despite early assessments that Russia would begin drawing down its military forces in Syria due to its need for more troops in the Ukraine invasion, it appears…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Booklet #261: An Example of Israel’s Legal System in the West Bank

    Jun 13, 2022Jonathan Kuttab

    In May 2022, the Israeli commander in the West Bank issued the latest set of regulations for the occupied territories in the form of Booklet #261. The booklet …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptSecurity and Defense

    Insurgency in Sinai: Challenges and Prospects

    Jun 10, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    In May 2022, at least 16 Egyptian troops were killed in two separate attacks in the Sinai Peninsula. The attacks were claimed by Wilayat Sinai or Sinai Provinc…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    The Biden Administration Is Struggling to Develop a Middle East Strategy

    Jun 10, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    Despite the declining capacity of the United States to shape the Middle East’s strategic architecture, it is unlikely that effective regional solutions to secu…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelThe War in Ukraine

    Food Insecurity in Palestine and the Russia-Ukraine War: The Worst Is Yet to Come

    Jun 9, 2022Omar Shaban

    The potential impact of a drop in the supply of grain to global markets due to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war has increased fears about food insecurity around …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelInternational Law

    Jerusalem’s Status Quo Agreement: History and Challenges to Its Viability

    Jun 7, 2022Mounir Marjieh

    In all initiatives and negotiations for a final and peaceful settlement between Israel and Palestine, Jerusalem has proved to be the toughest final-status issu…

  • Policy Analysis
    US Foreign Policy

    The Middle East’s Well-Documented Human Rights Abuses Have Little Impact on US Policy

    Jun 7, 2022Charles W. Dunne

    On April 12, the US Department of State released its annual country reports on human rights. The reports are a key resource for human rights scholars and gover…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkish Reasons for a Rapprochement with Saudi Arabia

    Jun 2, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan did not hide his main demand when he buried the case of Jamal Khashoggi, the Washington Post columnist who was killed o…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Saudi Reasons for a Rapprochement with Turkey

    Reports that Saudi Arabian Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman may be planning to visit Turkey as part of an international trip in June, one of his first outside …

  • Policy Analysis
    Justice, Equality, and Human Rights

    “Free Them All”: The Trampled Rights of Political Prisoners in the Arab World

    May 27, 2022Yara M. Asi

    In December 2021, Egyptian activist and blogger Alaa Abdel Fattah was sentenced to prison for five years after being convicted of “spreading false news.” Alaa …

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Maghreb-France Relations as Macron Begins Second Term

    May 26, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    For France to remain on good terms with North Africa, it has to be ready to offer concrete assistance and avoid what in many respects have been Macron’s symbol…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Yemen’s Presidential Leadership Council Offers Hope Amid Uncertainty

    The surprise resignation of Yemeni President Abdrabbu Mansour Hadi in early April and his immediate replacement by an eight-member Presidential Leadership Coun…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranMedia and Technology

    Information Controls in Iranian Cyberspace: A Soft War Strategy

    May 23, 2022Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies

    While the Islamic Republic of Iran undoubtedly uses cyberspace for censorship and surveillance of its citizens, including cyber warfare to damage information s…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantDemocracy and Governance

    A Preliminary Reading into Lebanon’s Parliamentary Elections

    May 18, 2022Halim Shebaya

    Lebanon’s parliamentary elections, held on May 15, 2022, were the first chance to understand where Lebanese voters stand on a number of important issues since …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Middle East Leaders Contend with Strains in an Evolving Regional Entente

    May 13, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    In its unfolding bid to expand ties with Middle East governments, Israel must grapple with a basic challenge: how to ensure that events in the Palestinian-Isra…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Israel and the US Visa Waiver Program: Not a Done Deal

    May 12, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    Israel has long sought entry into the United States Visa Waiver Program (VWP) with limited success, despite years of efforts and the close strategic and bilate…

  • Viewpoint
    LebanonDemocracy and Governance

    Lebanon’s Voters Would Do Well to Support the Forces of Change

    May 10, 2022Imad K. Harb

    On May 15, resident Lebanese go to the polls to elect a new 128-member parliament to replace the one elected four years ago. Given the right to vote in 2018, e…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Gulf Countries’ Aid to Egypt: It Is Politics, Not the Economy, Stupid!

    May 5, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    On April 4, 2022, Gulf Arab countries pledged $22 billion to help Egypt avert a currency crisis resulting from the Russian war on Ukraine. The Egyptian pound l…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Israel Is Stepping Closer to Controlling al-Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem

    May 3, 2022Jonathan Kuttab

    Jonathan Kuttab examines the current conditions on Jerusalem’s al-Haram al-Sharif where Israeli authorities and settlers are trying to change the status quo go…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    Iraq’s Government Formation Hindered by Intra-Group Political Competitions

    May 2, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    Zeidon Alkinani argues that the current political deadlock in Iraq in choosing a president and a prime minister is fueled by intra-group competitions in the Sh…

  • Policy Analysis
    Migrants, Refugees, and IDPs

    Racism and the Blocked Refuge of the Displaced of the Middle East

    Apr 28, 2022Heba Gowayed

    The world today is facing an unprecedented crisis of human displacement. About one of every 95 persons is displaced from his or her home due to persecution, wa…

  • Policy Analysis
    Women & Gender Issues

    Women at Work in the Arab World: Trends, Gaps, and Effects on the Region

    Apr 27, 2022Yara M. Asi

    For centuries, women have fought uphill and often overlooked battles to attain rights equal to those afforded to men—through books, songs and poetry, artwork, …

  • Policy Analysis
    The Horn of AfricaEnergy and Economics

    Horn of Africa’s Security Concerns and Economic Crises

    The current Russia-Ukraine crisis has overshadowed another troubled region of the world, namely the Horn of Africa, which encompasses Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti,…

  • Policy Analysis
    Women & Gender Issues

    Going Backward Is Not an Option: The Challenge of Equality for Arab Women

    Apr 22, 2022 Lina AbiRafeh

    No country in the world has achieved gender equality. The reality is that women are still not able to equally participate in all aspects of social, economic, a…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaReligion and Politics

    The Evolving Relationship Between Religion and Politics in Saudi Arabia

    Apr 20, 2022Jon Hoffman

    Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s (MbS) rise to power has resulted in what are arguably some of the most significant political transformations …

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    Iraq Awaits the End of Its Political Deadlock

    Apr 18, 2022Rend Al-Rahim

    In Iraq’s parliamentary elections last October, the Sadrist Movement led by the Shia cleric Muqtada al-Sadr emerged as the largest bloc with 73 seats. Its clos…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Ceasefire and a Presidential Council, but Uncertainties Abound in Yemen

    Apr 18, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Another chapter in Yemen’s domestic developments and regional entanglements seems to have begun, but with no assurances that it will have a happy ending. Follo…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanDemocracy and Governance

    Royal Rifts and Other Challenges in Jordan

    Apr 14, 2022Curtis Ryan

    Jordan’s former crown prince, Hamza bin Al Hussein, posted a rare message on social media in early April 2022, announcing that he was relinquishing his royal t…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    The Bennett Coalition Crisis in Israel

    Apr 14, 2022Khalil E. Jahshan

    The abrupt resignation on April 6 of Idit Silman, a key member of Prime Minister Naftali Bennett’s Yamina Party and de facto whip for the Bennett-Lapid coaliti…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonIdentity Politics and Sectarianization

    Hezbollah Mirrors a Weak State and a Turbulent Region

    Apr 13, 2022Nabeel Khoury

    In the eyes of an observant analyst, “While it is customary to characterize Hezbollah as a ‘state within a state,’ it is more accurate now to define it as a ‘s…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Kais Saied Continues His Assault on the Tunisian State

    Apr 8, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    It is difficult to say whether Tunisian President Kais Saied’s March 30 announcement that he is dissolving the country’s parliament represents a turning point …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Month of Fasting…and Bracing in Jerusalem

    Apr 7, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    Ramadan, the Islamic holy month, is a cherished time for hundreds of millions across the globe, featuring fasting, reflection, recitation of religious verse, a…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptThe War in Ukraine

    Russia’s War on Ukraine: Egypt’s Limited Room for Maneuver

    Apr 6, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    The Russian war on Ukraine will have significant impacts on countries in the Middle East, ranging from strategic realignments to energy security and food suppl…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Key Messages from the Oppressed

    Apr 6, 2022Dana El Kurd

    In the last few weeks, there has seen an uptick in armed attacks by Palestinians within the green line. From the Palestinian perspective, these attacks deliver…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyThe War in Ukraine

    The Syrian Connection in the Turkish-Russian Tango

    Apr 4, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    Leveraging its close relations with both sides of the Ukraine conflict, Turkey has seized the opportunity to highlight its strategic importance. The latest Rus…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelThe War in Ukraine

    The Russian Invasion of Ukraine and International Law

    Apr 1, 2022Jonathan Kuttab

    Since its launching on February 24, the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine has truly put different aspects of international law to the test. The international…

  • Policy Analysis
    The War in Ukraine

    The Water’s Edge: Ukraine, the United States, and the Middle East

    Mar 30, 2022Charles W. Dunne

    “Politics must stop at the water’s edge,” Republican Senator Arthur Vandenberg famously asserted in1947, as he helped Democratic President Harry S. Truman lay …

  • Policy Analysis
    IranSecurity and Defense

    Israel-Iran Shadow War in Syria intensifies Amid International Developments

    The ongoing military conflict between Israel and Iran (along with Iran-backed Shia forces like Hezbollah) in Syria show no signs of easing despite the Russia-U…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Current Iraq-Gulf Relations: Economics over Politics?

    Mar 23, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    The Gulf Arab states practiced an almost unified approach to post–2003 Iraq, which was generally derived from their established alliance following the 1990–199…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfThe War in Ukraine

    The GCC and the Russia-Ukraine Crisis

    The six countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council have responded to the Russian invasion of Ukraine according to their interests and preferences. While the fig…

  • Policy Analysis
    Global Health and Health Policy

    Increasing Awareness of Mental Health Needs in Arab Populations

    Mar 18, 2022Yara M. Asi

    Two years after the initial lockdowns of the COVID-19 pandemic, biomedical advancements like vaccinations and pharmaceutical treatments began to allow countrie…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaDemocracy and Governance

    Libya: A Return to Uncertainty

    Mar 16, 2022Imad K. Harb

    It appears that all bets are off in Libya. Elections that were scheduled for last December were postponed as competing institutions and individuals interpret p…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Iran and Israel Deal with the Rampaging Russian Bear

    Mar 16, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has produced some unusual bedfellows, the strangest of whom are Iran and Israel. Perhaps the term “bedfellows” is an exaggeration,…

  • Policy Analysis
    Conflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Ukraine War: The Arab World is Not Immune

    Mar 7, 2022Amal Ghazal Imad K. Harb Khalil E. Jahshan Marwan Kabalan Laurie King Tamara Kharroub

    The Russian invasion of Ukraine is a geopolitical event that will have serious global repercussions that go beyond the military aspects of the conflict. Indeed…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenUS Foreign Policy

    Yemen: The Failure of International Diplomacy

    Mar 3, 2022Nabeel Khoury

    The latest escalation in Yemen, particularly the cross-border rocket fire by the Ansar Allah militia (the Houthis) and the retaliatory aerial bombardment by th…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Sisi Intensifies Arms Imports to Secure External Support for His Policies

    Feb 28, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    Egypt has become the third largest arms importer in the world, according to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). The institute’s “Trends i…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Israel and Turkey Ponder the Costs and Benefits of Rapprochement

    Feb 25, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    On February 6, Haaretz reported that Israeli President Isaac Herzog called to wish Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his wife a speedy recovery, after…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantViolent Extremism

    Is the Islamic State Rebounding in Syria and Iraq?

    The nearly two-week siege in January of the Ghuwayran prison and parts of the town of Hasaka by fighters of the so-called Islamic State (IS) in northeastern Sy…

  • Policy Analysis
    SudanDemocracy and Governance

    A Coup Cannot Serve Two Masters

    Feb 22, 2022Kholood Khair

    After a two-year experiment in civilian-military power-sharing, Sudan’s military took over on October 25, 2021 in another bid to govern the country alone. Afte…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkey’s Evolving Policy toward Iran

    Feb 16, 2022Mustafa Gurbuz

    Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoğlu’s official call to his Israeli counterpart was a rarity since the Erdoğan-Peres confrontation in Davos in January 200…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Making Sense of the Palestinian Central Council’s February Meeting

    Feb 16, 2022Jamil Hilal

    The meeting of the Palestinian Central Council (PCC), held in Ramallah on February 6, received more attention in the news media than was warranted for a number…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqDemocracy and Governance

    The Quiet Kurdish Rivalry over Iraq’s Presidency

    Feb 9, 2022Zeidon Alkinani

    Zeidon Alkinani discusses the rivalry between Iraq’s main Kurdish parties—the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK)—and i…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Prospects for the Israeli Governing Coalition

    Feb 9, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    Yousef Munayyer evaluates the prospects of survival of Israel’s current governing coalition, whose partners have little in common except that they coalesced ar…

  • Policy Analysis
    QatarUS Foreign Policy

    Qatar’s New Designation as US Non-NATO Ally Serves Multiple Purposes

    Feb 4, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Less than five years after the eruption of the Gulf crisis of June 2017 that seriously threatened Qatar’s security, President Joe Biden designated the Gulf Ara…

  • Policy Analysis
    Media and Technology

    Mapping Digital Authoritarianism in the Arab World

    Feb 3, 2022Tamara Kharroub

    The Arab uprisings of 2011 gave rise to a utopian vision of information and communication technologies (ICTs), highlighting their abilities to bypass governmen…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    After Parting Ways: The Coming Frosty Entente in Saudi-Turkish Relations

    Feb 2, 2022Jana J. Jabbour

    This is likely to be Turkey’s year of normalization with regional counterparts, as 2021 was one of diplomatic restoration for Turkish foreign policy. While in …

  • Policy Analysis
    Justice, Equality, and Human Rights

    A Bleak Landscape for Democracy and Human Rights in the MENA Region in 2022

    Feb 2, 2022Charles W. Dunne

    Any survey of human rights in the Middle East and North Africa at the start of 2022 has to open with the bad news.Promising protest movements that began in 201…

  • Policy Analysis
    Global Health and Health Policy

    Two Years of COVID-19 in the Arab World: Social, Economic, and Political Effects

    Jan 31, 2022Yara M. Asi

    It was just over two years ago—on January 5, 2020—that the World Health Organization (WHO) reported “cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology” based on informati…

  • Policy Analysis
    US Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Non-Doctrine in the Middle East: One Year On

    Jan 27, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    To understand the actual forces shaping US foreign policy, it is imperative to put aside the alluring but misleading notion that a “doctrine” provides a useful…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Sisi’s Transnational Repression: Silencing Political Dissidents in Exile

    Jan 26, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    On January 6, the FBI arrested Pierre Girgis, an Egyptian American, for spying on critics of Egypt’s president in the United States. According to the US Depart…

  • Policy Analysis
    North AfricaDemocracy and Governance

    The Islamists of Northwest Africa: Accommodation and Co-optation

    Jan 26, 2022Amal Ghazal

    Analyses of Islamists in Northwest Arica—from Mauritania to Libya—follow a common pattern of distinguishing militants among them from non-militants. In particu…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Abbas-Gantz Encounter: Much Ado about Nothing in the Middle East

    Jan 18, 2022Khalil E. Jahshan

    On December 28, 2021, a surprising development took place in the Middle East: Palestinian Authority (PA) President Mahmoud Abbas held a rare meeting in Israel,…

  • Policy Analysis
    Democracy and Governance

    The Democracy Deficit in the Arab World

    Jan 14, 2022Imad K. Harb

    Imad K. Harb examines the democracy deficit in the Arab world and the associated widespread violations of human rights, probing possible explanations of what h…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Ukraine’s Geostrategic Tremors Reach into the Middle East

    Jan 13, 2022Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg disentangles the complications arising from the current tensions between Ukraine and Russia and their impact on US-Russian relations as well as…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaDemocracy and Governance

    Libya: Political Paralysis and Continued Uncertainty

    Gregory Aftandilian writes that the postponement of Libya’s presidential and parliamentary elections has helped plunge the country into another crisis that thr…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonEnergy and Economics

    The Need for an International Development Fund for Lebanon

    Jan 6, 2022Nabeel Khoury

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB), European Union (EU), France, and the United States are all trying to help Lebanon out of the economic a…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Biden and the Israeli Settlement Elephant in the Room

    Jan 5, 2022Yousef Munayyer

    One of Barack Obama’s first acts as president was to create the position of envoy for “Middle East peace.” George Mitchell, whom the president named for this p…

  • Viewpoint
    SudanDemocracy and Governance

    Sudan’s Revolution Must Be Allowed to Continue

    Jan 4, 2022Imad K. Harb

    In a move that reflected his failure to garner the support of the Sudanese public, Sudan’s Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok submitted his resignation on January 2…

  • Policy Analysis
    Media and Technology

    Between Conflicts, Politics, and COVID-19: Challenges for Arab Journalists

    Dec 30, 2021Sahar Khamis

    The number of imprisoned journalists worldwide reached a record high in 2021. As one of the  more dangerous regions, the Arab world  poses abundant threats for…

  • Policy Analysis
    TunisiaDemocracy and Governance

    Can Tunisia’s Leaders Forge a New Democratic Bargain?

    Dec 29, 2021Daniel Brumberg

    Nothing captures Tunisia’s crisis of democracy better than this act: the sentencing, in absentia, of former President Moncef Marzouki to four years in prison. …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    US-Palestinian Economic Talks Serve Israeli Interests

    Dec 29, 2021Jonathan Kuttab

    The recent resumption of discussions about economic ties between the US government and the Palestinian Authority (PA) after a five-year hiatus must be understo…