• Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelInternational Law

    ICC Cases Against Israel and Hamas: A Preliminary Assessment

    May 24, 2024Susan Akram John Quigley

    The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Karim A.A. Khan, announced on May 20 that his office had applied for arrest warrants against both Isr…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelInternational Law

    The ICJ Moves to Protect International Law from Israeli Transgressions

    May 24, 2024Khalil E. Jahshan

    The International Court of Justice (ICJ) today issued its long-awaited decision regarding the situation in the Gaza Strip and the case advanced by South Africa…

  • Intern Corner
    SyriaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Captagon: Assad’s Ticket to Normalization in the Arab World?

    May 22, 2024Emily Costello

    On May 19, 2023, Bashar al-Assad made headlines by attending the Arab League summit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia for the first time since the start of the Syria Civ…

  • Policy Analysis
    UAERegional Relations and Geopolitics

    UAE Restricts US Military Strikes from Its Territory

    Fearing an attack by Iran or its allied militias in the region, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has restricted US military aircraft from targeting these proxy g…

  • From our Affiliates
    Saudi ArabiaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Determinants of Saudi Arabia’s Response to the Gaza War

    May 22, 2024Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies

    Following Hamas’s “Operation Al-Aqsa Flood” on October 7, Saudi Arabia publicly criticized Israel’s actions in Gaza and blamed it for escalating tensions, desp…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Whitewashing Biden’s Policy on Gaza

    May 21, 2024Khalil E. Jahshan

    On May 13, National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan addressed the media in the White House press room on current developments in the Middle East, focusing on th…

  • Viewpoint
    IranDemocracy and Governance

    Raisi Departs, But Iran Remains Khamenei’s Realm

    May 20, 2024Imad K. Harb

    Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi’s death comes at a particularly precarious time for the Islamic Republic. While important, considering the monumental news, Sup…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Seven Months of War on Gaza, Israel Is in International Distress

    May 17, 2024Mtanes Shihadeh

    The Israeli government has described the war on Gaza since last October as an “existential war and a second war of independence.” Israel’s official and public …

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelUS Domestic Politics and Elections

    Congress’s Crackdown on Campus Protests and the Threat to Civil Liberties

    May 15, 2024Ethan Mayer-Rich

    It has been a month since student protests started at Columbia University with the establishment of a protest encampment on April 17. In response, students aro…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    The Gaza Crisis Pushes Washington and Riyadh Closer

    May 15, 2024Daniel Brumberg

    Hamas’s May 6 acceptance of a hostage deal proposed by Egypt and Qatar was surely designed to induce the White House to pressure Israel to produce a counteroff…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Divergent Saudi-Emirati Agendas Cripple Yemen’s Presidential Leadership Council

    May 15, 2024Afrah Nasser

    Two years into its existence, Yemen’s Presidential Leadership Council (PLC) still has not effectively addressed critical problems facing the country: a dire ec…

  • Policy Analysis
    SudanConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    One Year On: The Calamities of the Sudan Conflict

    May 14, 2024Imad K. Harb

    Thirteen months have passed since the eruption of the military dispute between Sudan’s powerful generals Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, leader of the Sudanese Armed F…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelProtests and Activism

    American Student Protest Movements, Then and Now

    May 10, 2024Rami G. Khouri

    Watching university students protest in the United States over the past three weeks begs the question of whether they will end American support for Israel’s ge…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    Iraq’s Sudani Runs the Risks of Sustained Relations with the United States

    May 7, 2024Rend Al-Rahim

    On his recent visit to the United States, Iraqi Prime Minister Mohammed Shia` al-Sudani proposed a bold new relationship with America, basing it on the joint S…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Saudi-Israeli Normalization Persists Amid Gaza War

    May 3, 2024The Unit for Political Studies

    Before “Operation Al-Aqsa Flood,” launched by Hamas on October 7, 2023, the Biden administration was attempting to conclude a diplomatic groundbreaking deal in…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Middle East Trajectories Emanating from the War on Gaza 

    May 2, 2024Nabeel A. Khoury

    Israel’s still unfolding war on Gaza is finishing its seventh month with no let-up in sight. The Palestinian death toll from Israeli operations has surpassed 3…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyDemocracy and Governance

    Local Elections Show Turkey’s Democratic Resilience

    May 2, 2024Salim Çevik

    Immediately after his re-election to a third term last May, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced that his Justice and Development Party (AKP) was r…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelProtests and Activism

    Although Limited, Arab Public Protests Against the War in Gaza Continue

    Apr 30, 2024Dana El Kurd

    Seven months into Israel’s violence in Gaza—which has credibly been identified as an active genocide—the Middle East has teetered on the brink of chaos. Unders…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Gulf Arab States Avoid Iran-Israel Tensions

    Years of shadow conflict between Israel and Iran, which included targeted assassinations as well as cyberattacks, gave way in April to direct confrontation and…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Domestic Politics and Elections

    The Gaza War Still Can Decide the American Presidential Election

    Latest polls indicate that President Joe Biden and former President Donald Trump are in a dead heat in the presidential race at this point in the campaign, whi…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelInternational Law

    Is International Law Still Relevant after the Carnage in Gaza?

    Apr 23, 2024Susan Akram John Quigley

    According to the UN’s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the death toll in Gaza by Israel’s onslaught has passed 34,000 Palestinians, …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelMedia and Technology

    The Dozen Ds That Drive Israel’s Propaganda 

    Apr 17, 2024Rami G. Khouri

    The past six months of Israeli-Palestinian warfare have witnessed levels of military ferocity, human suffering, societal destruction, and mass political activi…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Canada’s Symbolic Move on Arms to Israel

    Apr 17, 2024Muhannad Ayyash

    On March 18, the Canadian House of Commons passed, by a vote of 204-117, a non-binding motion calling on the federal government to “cease the further authoriza…

  • Viewpoint
    IranConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Failed Iranian Performance and Its Repercussions

    Apr 15, 2024Imad K. Harb

    Rare are the occasions when a purportedly capable country’s determined military response to attack turns out to be a mere theatrical performance. Such was the …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Six Months of Carnage in Gaza

    Six months of the devastating Israeli war on the Gaza Strip have caused the death and injury of more than a hundred thousand Palestinians, spread starvation an…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Iran’s Resistance Strategy After Israel’s Damascus Attack

    Apr 12, 2024Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg discusses whether Iran and Israel are on their way to a direct confrontation after the latter’s attack on the Iranian consulate’s annex in Dama…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Hezbollah-Israel War Is Becoming Inevitable, and the United States May Not Prevent It

    Apr 10, 2024Patricia Karam

    Patricia Karam evaluates the possibility of a war between Hezbollah and Israel that would be a major escalation in the Middle East as the United States tries t…

  • Policy Analysis
    Democracy and Governance

    The State of Civil Society in MENA after the 2011 Uprisings

    Apr 10, 2024Anwar Mhajne

    Anwar Mhajne discusses the condition of civil society organizations in the Arab world and regime strategies to restrict their activities, especially political …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Once Again, Germany Is on the Wrong Side of History

    Apr 9, 2024Salim Cevik

    Since the onset of Israel's war on Gaza, Germany has emerged as one of its most steadfast allies, along with the United States. This alignment is not surprisin…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenEnergy and Economics

    Houthi Red Sea Attacks Have Global Economic Repercussions

    Apr 5, 2024Jim Krane

    The Houthi attacks on Red Sea shipping present a new phenomenon in geo-economic conflict: a non-state actor using asymmetric warfare not just to fight conventi…

  • Viewpoint
    JordanProtests and Activism

    Path of Least Cost: Assuaging Public Protests in Jordan

    Apr 1, 2024Imad K. Harb

    Once again, events in Gaza are showing up in the form of indignant protests in Jordan that, if not properly handled, could lead to serious challenges for the J…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    “Heartbreak and Heartlessness” in Gaza: Crisis in International Humanitarian Aid

    Mar 28, 2024Yara M. Asi

    In March 2024, after months of watching and funding the active destruction of Gaza’s infrastructure and the degradation of its population, the global powers st…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Gaza, Biden, and an American Intifada

    Mar 27, 2024Charles W. Dunne

    As Israel’s devastating Gaza invasion wears on, tensions between President Joe Biden and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu are spiking, endangering the…

  • Policy Analysis
    LibyaDemocracy and Governance

    Libya: Despite Talks on a Unified Government, Impasse Remains

    Talks last month in Cairo between representatives of Libya’s two rival governments raised hopes over progress in resolving the country’s 10-year political impa…

  • Research Paper
    Palestine/IsraelMigrants, Refugees, and IDPs

    The Gaza War Is a Chapter in the Displacement of the Palestinian People

    Mar 26, 2024Mahmoud Muhareb

    Israel took advantage of October 7, 2023, to launch a war of extermination against the Palestinian people in the Gaza Strip. It announced that its goal in the …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Return to First Principles: The ‘Day After’ and Palestinian Self-Determination

    Mar 26, 2024Saul Takahashi

    On numerous occasions since October 2023, Israel, the United States, and other countries have outlined their visions for how Gaza, and Palestine as a whole, sh…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Whither the Arab World from What is Happening in Gaza?

    Mar 20, 2024Imad K. Harb

    Israel’s war on Gaza has recently entered its sixth straight month with no respite or apparent possibility of a permanent ceasefire that could spare the lives …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Israeli Non-Compliance with ICJ Provisional Orders

    Mar 20, 2024Jonathan Kuttab

    On January 26, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) indicated preliminary measures in  the case brought against Israel by South Africa under the Genocide C…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelEducation and Development

    Israel’s War on the Education Sector in the Gaza Strip 

    Mar 20, 2024Nour Naim

    Palestinians’ experience with displacement, asylum, and dispossession since the Nakba in 1948 sparked what can be described as an educational revolution, leadi…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Domestic Politics and Elections

    Gaza and the Battle of Negations in the United States (and Beyond) 

    Mar 14, 2024Daniel Brumberg

    At no point in the history of the Middle East has the Palestinian-Israeli conflict collided with US domestic politics in such a visceral way as today. As multi…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelInternational Law

    The ICJ Case on Israeli Occupation: A Report

    Mar 4, 2024Jonathan Kuttab

    On February 19, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) began public hearings on the issue referred to it by the General Assembly of the United Nations, by vi…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Limits of Justice in Lebanon—and What It Means for the Future of the Country

    Feb 28, 2024Patricia Karam

    Three years ago this month, the assassination of Lokman Slim—public intellectual, human rights defender, writer and publisher, and outspoken critic of Hezbolla…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Saudi Arabia May Be Taking Center Stage in Post-Gaza Peace

    With Israel’s war on Gaza in its fifth month amid ongoing international pressure for a ceasefire, Saudi Arabia has become the focus of much attention over what…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenUS Foreign Policy

    Instead of Houthi Designation, the United States Should Embrace a Comprehensive Approach

    Feb 28, 2024Afrah Nasser

    On January 17, the United States designated the Houthis in Yemen, also known as Ansar Allah, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist (SDGT) in response to t…

  • Policy Analysis
    UAERegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The UAE and the Red Sea Security Crisis

    Feb 27, 2024Giorgio Cafiero

    Despite the Israeli war on Gaza killing nearly 30,000 Palestinians, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has clung to the Abraham Accords, which it signed with Israe…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantUS Foreign Policy

    US Troops to Stay in Syria and Iraq but Perhaps Not for Long

    In recent weeks, there have been meetings in Washington and in Baghdad about the presence in Iraq and Syria of US troops, whose official mandate is to aid loca…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Arab States Have Supported and Shunned Hamas in the Gaza War

    Feb 21, 2024Rami G. Khouri

    Four months of warfare between Israel and Hamas have generated regional and global dynamics that will shape the Middle East for decades. But the war in Gaza ha…

  • Viewpoint
    SomaliaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Dangerous Chipping Away of Somalia’s Sovereignty

    Feb 16, 2024Imad K. Harb

    On New Year’s Day, Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and the president of Somalia’s breakaway federated state of Somaliland Muse Bihi Abdi signed a Memorand…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelDemocracy and Governance

    Elections in Israel: Possible Scenarios and Outcomes

    Feb 16, 2024Mohanad Mustafa

    With the outbreak of the war on Gaza, there was a consensus in Israel that war was an exceptional emergency in which politics was neutralized, that unity was a…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Congress Works to Give More Aid to Israel, None for UNRWA

    Feb 16, 2024Ethan Mayer-Rich

    On February 13, the Senate voted 70-29 to pass a $95.3 billion national security supplemental package (H.R.815) to provide additional security assistance to Uk…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    The Biden Administration’s Confused Response to Israel’s Rafah Operation

    Feb 15, 2024Hanna Alshaikh

    At the center of US coverage of the Israeli war on Gaza in recent days is the rift between President Joe Biden and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu regarding …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Unprecedented Internal Displacement in Gaza

    Feb 14, 2024Kelsey Norman

    Conflicts always produce more internally displaced individuals than refugees. While there are approximately 32 million refugees worldwide, the number of intern…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Turkish-Gulf Relations in the Context of Regional Reconciliation

    Feb 14, 2024Salim Çevik

    Since 2021, Turkey has been resetting its policies in the Middle East and has started to reconcile with its rivals in the previous decade—Egypt, Israel, Saudi …

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    From Gaza to the Syrian Border, Jordan Is Increasingly in the Line of Fire  

    Feb 9, 2024Curtis Ryan

    Since Israel launched its current war on Gaza last October, Jordanians have been closely watching the enclave, and the rising tensions in the region, with deep…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Egypt, the Gaza War, and Fears of Another Nakba

    Feb 7, 2024Charles W. Dunne

    Like most Arab countries, Egypt was stunned by the conflagration ignited by last October’s Hamas attack inside southern Israel and subsequent Israeli onslaught…

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqSecurity and Defense

    Iraq’s Illusory Sovereignty: Domestic and Foreign Culprits

    Feb 7, 2024Rend Al-Rahim

    The abridgement of Iraqi state sovereignty began at least with the Gulf War of 1991, when Iraq’s Kurds received international protection, the United States and…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    How the Gaza War Is Upending US Middle East Policy

    Feb 2, 2024Patricia Karam

    As the Israel-Hamas war threatens to pull the United States into a broader conflict that would potentially upend US standing and policy, peace and stability in…

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenUS Foreign Policy

    From Gaza to Yemen and Back: The Biden Administration’s Confused Strategy

    Feb 1, 2024Nabeel A. Khoury

    On January 17, the Biden administration announced it was adding Yemen’s Houthis (also called Ansar Allah) to the US terrorist list. The move returned the rebel…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelMedia and Technology

    Gaza as Ground Zero for Israel’s Border Technology

    Feb 1, 2024Heba Gowayed

    More than a node in a global system of border apartheid, Gaza has become ground zero for Israel’s carceral and military technology that is marketed to other st…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    The Sunday Talk Shows on Gaza: A Study in Media Bias

    Jan 31, 2024William L. Youmans

    That the American public is not regarded as especially well-informed when it comes to international affairs is conventional wisdom among the US political and n…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Occupied West Bank Since October 7: Movement Restrictions and Collective Punishment

    Jan 26, 2024Yara M. Asi

    In August 2023, Itamar Ben-Gvir—not just any government minister, but Israel’s Minister of National Security—told an interviewer that “my right, the right of m…

  • Viewpoint
    LebanonConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Continuing Skirmishes but No Hezbollah-Israel War

    Jan 25, 2024Imad K. Harb

    Daily and intense skirmishes between Israeli forces and Hezbollah and its allies across the Blue Line—in reference to the border drawn by the United Nations fo…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Iran Between Managing Allies and Modulating Its Deterrence

    Jan 25, 2024Daniel Brumberg

    This is a bad time for Iran to become embroiled in an expanding regional war that pits the Islamic Republic and its allies in Iraq, Lebanon, and Yemen against …

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenUS Foreign Policy

    The Biden Administration Is Strong in the Red Sea but Weak in Gaza

    After enduring weeks of regional tension, including Houthi rebel attacks on shipping in the Red Sea and on American commercial vessels, the Biden administratio…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Deciphering Blinken’s Unguarded Optimism

    Jan 18, 2024Khalil E. Jahshan

    The Biden administration announced its first Middle East initiative of the new year on January 4, 2024, by dispatching Secretary of State Antony Blinken to the…

  • Policy Analysis
    Regional Implications and Geopolitics

    Turkey’s “Guarantor System” for Ending the Gaza War Has Limitations

    Jan 17, 2024Ali Bakir

    In mid-October, following the UN Security Council’s failure to pass a Russian resolution calling for an immediate humanitarian truce in Gaza, Turkey proposed a…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Normalization Survives Despite the Gaza War

    Jan 11, 2024Imad K. Harb

    The current Israeli war on Gaza, now well into its fourth deadly month, has cast a calamitous shadow over the lives of Palestinians and Israelis, as well as ov…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arab WorldRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Important Considerations for the Middle East in 2024

    The October 7 Hamas attack on Israel and Israel’s subsequent invasion of the Gaza Strip will play a major role in shaping what unfolds in the Middle East in 20…

  • Policy Analysis
    OmanRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Oman, Gaza, and Relations with the United States

    Jan 5, 2024Giorgio Cafiero

    The Sultanate of Oman traditionally has maintained a low profile on the international stage while conducting a friends-of-all foreign policy based on moderatio…

  • Intern Corner
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Young Americans and the War on Gaza: President Biden Should Worry

    Jan 5, 2024Suravi Kumar

    For decades, Israel enjoyed strong bipartisan backing from Americans. But in recent years, there has been a measurable shift in public opinion away from this t…

  • Policy Analysis
    Regional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Far East Pivots to the Middle East 

    Jan 3, 2024Nabeel A. Khoury

    The phrase “Pivot to the East,” popularized during the Obama administration, signified a realization of the rising importance of China and of growing US intere…

  • Viewpoint
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Arouri’s Assassination Will Achieve Nothing

    Jan 3, 2024Imad K. Harb

    In its pursuit of Hamas leaders, an Israeli drone has assassinated Saleh al-Arouri, the Deputy Chairman of Hamas’s Political Bureau, a senior official in the o…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Russia and China on Gaza: Sidelined, Lurking—or Winning?

    Dec 22, 2023Charles W. Dunne

    It wasn’t that long ago that Russia and China seemed to dominate the Middle East, and the United States was on the brink of relegation to the sidelines.Russia …

  • Policy Analysis
    Climate and Environment

    COP28: Achievements Fall Short of the Goal

    Dec 21, 2023Afrah Nasser

    The recently concluded United Nations Climate Change Conference in Dubai, otherwise known as COP28, marked a significant moment in global efforts to address cl…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    The Israel-Hamas War in American Politics

    Any rational discourse in the United States about the Israel-Hamas war increasingly has been subject to political litmus tests, as Israel supporters and Republ…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Lebanon’s Political Forces Oppose a War with Israel

    Dec 20, 2023Patricia Karam

    With a heightened risk of the Gaza war spilling over into Lebanon, currently mired in acute political, economic, and social crises, the country’s politicians v…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelInternational Law

    The Case for Prosecuting Israel for Genocide in Gaza

    Dec 14, 2023Jonathan Kuttab

    The current Israeli war on Gaza has given rise to questions about whether it is possible to invoke the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Shifting the Paradigm: The One-State Solution as a Path to Peace

    Dec 14, 2023Samer Elchahabi

    The current round of Israeli-Palestinian fighting, marked by the deaths of some 1,200 people in Israel and more than 18,000 Palestinians in Gaza, as well as th…

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Criminal Injustice in the “Court of Occupation”: Palestinian Prisoners in Israeli Jails

    Dec 13, 2023Yara M. Asi

    Ahed Tamimi was just 16 when she was first arrested by Israel, after kicking and shoving two Israeli soldiers who raided her village in the occupied West Bank …

  • Policy Analysis
    Palestine/IsraelUS Foreign Policy

    Are Israel and the United States on a Collision Course?

    Dec 13, 2023Daniel Brumberg

    In a December 8 story that seems to have received little attention in western press coverage of Israel’s expanding military campaign in Gaza was this nugget of…