• Policy Analysis
    YemenUS Foreign Policy

    Biden’s Yemen Conundrum

    Oct 5, 2021Nabeel Khoury

    US National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan traveled to Riyadh on September 27 and was accompanied by US Special Envoy for Yemen Tim Lenderking. The visit highl…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    A New Strategic Architecture Is Emerging in the Gulf

    Sep 24, 2021Imad K. Harb

    As the Gulf crisis of 2017 recedes into memory, following the reconciliation in January at the “solidarity and stability” summit in Saudi Arabia’s al-Ula on th…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    A Saudi-Iranian Rapprochement Still Has a Long Way to Go

    Talks in Baghdad between officials of Saudi Arabia and Iran, which have been held periodically since April, have fueled speculation that these two regional pow…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Is a Saudi-Emirati Rift on the Horizon?

    Jul 7, 2021Imad K. Harb

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) appears to be approaching another unwelcome rift, this time between its two most vocal and influential members, Saudi Arabia…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    A Tough Nut to Crack: Rebalancing the US-Saudi Relationship

    Jun 2, 2021Charles W. Dunne

    Out on the campaign trail in 2019, presidential candidate Joe Biden made it clear that when it came to a principled US foreign policy, he intended to be the an…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Contingencies Undergird Saudi Foreign Policy

    A flurry of diplomatic outreach involving Iran, Syria, and Turkey, and a continuing warming of relations with other Gulf countries, have sparked questions over…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEducation and Development

    Arab Space Programs Level Up

    Apr 30, 2021Charles W. Dunne

    People in the Arab world have gazed at the stars with curiosity and genius for centuries. The first observatory was built in the 8th century by Abbasid Caliph …

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    After Iran, Saudi Arabia Faces Scrutiny in Biden’s Washington

    As was demonstrated in Arab Center Washington DC’s (ACW) last report, President Joe Biden has to deal with a divided Washington when it comes to US policy towa…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Repercussions of the ODNI Khashoggi Report: An Assessment

    Mar 3, 2021Khalil E. Jahshan Imad K. Harb Kristian Coates Ulrichsen Sarah Leah Whitson Rosie Bsheer

    On February 26, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) released its report on the assassination of US resident and Washington Post columnis…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Mohammed bin Salman in the Hot Seat

    Feb 26, 2021Imad K. Harb

    The Biden Administration’s release on February 26 of a declassified intelligence report implicating Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MbS) in the assassi…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Egyptian-Saudi Relations: Strategic Ties with Some Political Strains

    Egypt and Saudi Arabia continue to be strategic partners in the Middle East, buoyed by shared interests and certain threat perceptions. Saudi Arabia values Egy…

  • Book Review
    Saudi Arabia

    ‘Archive Wars: The Politics of History in Saudi Arabia,’ by Rosie Bsheer

    Feb 3, 2021Imad K. Harb

    In her book, Rosie Bsheer argues that the Saudi state’s material politics shows how the regime wants to reengineer the social order in the kingdom away from re…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The Gulf

    The GCC Reconciliation: An Assessment

    Leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) held their 41st summit meeting on January 5, 2021 in al-Ula, Saudi Arabia, and agreed to end the Gulf crisis that…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The Gulf

    Saudi Arabia Ends the GCC Crisis

    Jan 7, 2021Imad K. Harb

    It finally happened: the GCC crisis is seemingly over. The 41st summit meeting of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) succeeded in surmounting the three-and-a-h…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    MbS Also Gets Nothing for Normalizing with Israel

    Nov 23, 2020Imad K. Harb

    Once again, Arab solidarity with the Palestinian cause suffered a setback. Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MbS) reportedly met with Israeli Pr…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    Saudi Arabia Prefers Implicit Normalization with Israel

    Sep 18, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Signed at the White House on September 15, the new peace agreements between Israel on the one side and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Bahrain on the other …

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Riyadh Agreement 2.0 Changes Nothing in Yemen

    Aug 19, 2020Nabeel A. Khoury

    Nabeel Khoury contends that the lack of trust between Yemen’s Hadi government and southern secessionists is likely to at least delay the implementation of the …

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaSecurity and Defense

    Can Saudi Arabia and the UAE Develop National Arms Industries?

    Jul 22, 2020David B. Des Roches

    With a speed rarely seen in history, the Gulf Arab states have evolved from mere afterthoughts of colonialism to advanced countries. Located in a strategic reg…

  • Policy Analysis
    QatarThe GCC

    The GCC Crisis at Three Years: No Lessons Learned

    Jun 2, 2020Khalil Al-Anani Kristian Coates Ulrichsen Marwan Kabalan Courtney Freer Karen E. Young

    The continuation of the GCC crisis undermines the idea of a supranational entity through which the six countries of the council could realize political, econom…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    US Middle East Policy in Free Fall

    May 28, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Gulf Arab states have little choice but to rely for their security needs on the Trump Administration despite its feckless policy in the Middle East and poor ca…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Will Saudi Arabia Face Another Tumultuous Summer in Washington?

    May 20, 2020Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery discusses why Saudi-US relations could experience a difficult summer following President Trump's firing of a State Department inspector who w…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    MbS’s New “Vision 2020”: Reform and Repression

    May 5, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MbS) will most likely weather the political, economic, and health storms generated by COVID-19. Prompted by th…

  • Viewpoint
    YemenConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Unified Yemen May Soon Cease to Exist

    Apr 27, 2020Imad K. Harb

    With President Hadi too weak to respond to the self-rule declaration by the UAE- supported Southern Transitional Council, and Saudi Arabia too economically tro…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Did the Saudi-Led Oil Deal Diminish Republicans’ 2020 Electoral Chances?

    Apr 15, 2020Marcus Montgomery

    Because the health of the US economy is critical for Donald Trump's reelection hopes, Marcus Montgomery asks if the recent Saudi-led OPEC+ cuts will contribute…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    The Fourth Saudi State Remains a Distant Vision

    Apr 3, 2020Imad K. Harb

    Imad K. Harb argues that Mohammed bin Salman’s chaotic and authoritarian stewardship of Saudi domestic and international affairs may well impede the establishm…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    IranUS Foreign Policy

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Mar 26, 2020Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery reports on Republican senators’ drive to withdraw US troops from Saudi Arabia over the oil price plunge; the State Department’s push to relea…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    The Khashoggi Verdict: Whitewashing a Murder

    Dec 26, 2019Imad K. Harb

    Saudi Arabia's reputation remains on the line despite the whitewashing and the convoluted twists of Khashoggi’s killing. For now, at least, in Jamal’s case “ju…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfThe GCC

    GCC Reconciliation Is Coming, but Pesky Issues Remain

    Dec 8, 2019Imad K. Harb

    A limited reconciliation between parties to the GCC crisis is likely to take place during the upcoming summit in Riyadh. However, certain thorny and serious po…

  • From our Affiliates
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfThe GCC

    Is a resolution of the GCC crisis imminent?

    Nov 18, 2019Ibrahim Fraihat

    Ibrahim Fraihat argues that the September 14 attack on Aramco has had a significant effect on Riyadh and has forced Saudi Arabia to revise its policies toward …

  • From our Affiliates
    YemenRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The Riyadh Agreement on Yemen: Arrangements and Chances of Success

    Nov 18, 2019Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS)

    The Riyadh Agreement’s success will depend in large part on the local parties’ conviction that it serves their purposes at this time more than continued war do…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    IraqJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Congress Is Still Striving for “Justice for Jamal”

    Marcus Montgomery examines the actions of members of Congress as they demand justice for Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi, one year after his murder …

  • Policy Analysis
    IranConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Learning to Say “No” To Saudi Arabia on Iran and Yemen

    Sep 25, 2019Daniel Brumberg

    Daniel Brumberg writes that against the background of the White House’s escalating conflict with Tehran, Washington seems unwilling or unable to break its habi…

  • Policy Analysis
    IranConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Attacks on Saudi Oil Installations are a Game Changer

    The latest attacks on Saudi Arabia’s oil installations are a game changer in Saudi domestic politics and in regional and international affairs.

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    A Crumbling Saudi-Emirati Alliance in Yemen May Change US Gulf Policy

    Sep 4, 2019Charles W. Dunne

    The UAE's backing of Yemen’s southern separatists has angered Saudi Arabia and helped lead to a reevaluation of American policy toward the conflict. More volat…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Middle East States View Congress as a Second-Tier Actor

    Aug 14, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Middle East states view Congress as a second-tier actor in Washington and have calculated that flattering President Donald Trump is the most effective way to f…

  • Policy Analysis
    QatarJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    In Saudi Arabia, Covering the Khashoggi Murder Is a State Affair

    Aug 13, 2019Connor Echols

    Over the last decade, stories about the potential for freedom of the press in the Arab world have alternated between hopeful and hopeless. The 2011 Arab uprisi…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantSecurity and Defense

    Are Democrats Alone in Challenging Saudi Arabia?

    Jul 31, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Bipartisan consensus in Congress on recalibrating US-Saudi relations has dissipated amid partisanship and apathy. As the Trump Administration moves forward in …

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Jul 24, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    During a very busy week, Congress passed legislation in support of Israel and in opposition to arms sales for Saudi Arabia. Jared Kushner and company make plan…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    IranSecurity and Defense

    Congress Deliberates US-Iraq Relations

    Jul 17, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery discusses Congress’s deliberations with the Trump Administration about US-Iraqi relations. One of the important considerations is whether Was…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Saudi Arabia May Be on Its Own in Yemen

    Jul 15, 2019Imad K. Harb

    The UAE’s withdrawal from Yemen highlights the serious problems facing the war effort there. This situation puts Saudi Arabia in a difficult position and force…

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Saudi-Emirati-Egyptian Alliance Steering US Middle East Policy

    Jun 26, 2019Charles W. Dunne

    With the American retreat from the Middle East, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Egypt are presenting themselves as reliable allies. However, they are pursuing an ag…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Bad Press is Turning Congress’s Attention Back to Saudi Arabia

    Jun 12, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Marcus Montgomery writes that recent negative press coverage is raising Saudi Arabia’s visibility on Capitol Hill and hastening momentum among members of Congr…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    The Mecca Summits: Spinning the Wheels on Iran

    Jun 11, 2019Imad K. Harb

    By devoting its three Mecca summit meetings to vilifying and criticizing Iran, Saudi Arabia missed a good opportunity to address the many problems facing the G…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    “An Assad-run Syria should never be open for business”

    May 30, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Neither the Trump Administration nor Congress will deal with Bashar al-Assad or help rebuild Syria if there is no political solution in accordance with UN Reso…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaSecurity and Defense

    How a Legal Loophole is Helping Trump Sell Arms to Saudi Arabia

    May 28, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    President Trump is using tensions with Iran to bypass Congress and push through weapons sales to Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates

  • Policy Analysis
    IranRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Is War Coming to the Arabian Gulf?

    Given current conditions and the parties’ limitations, the chance of a military confrontation with Iran is remote—although the sharp rhetoric and counter-accus…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaMigrants, Refugees, and IDPs

    As Congress Scrutinizes Yemen, Spotlight Shines on Saudi Arabia and Its Partners

    Apr 9, 2019Charles W. Dunne

    Congress's vote to end US support for the war in Yemen reflects growing anger at Saudi Arabia. That anger is also extending to two of the kingdom’s closest all…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantEnergy and Economics

    Congress Balks at a Nuclear Riyadh

    The Trump Administration has been working quietly to facilitate a civilian nuclear program in Saudi Arabia, but Congress has qualms about any potential US-Saud…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantConflicts and Conflict Resolution

    Democrats and Republicans Split on Yemen

    Mar 13, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    Democrats and Republicans have different understandings of the crisis in Yemen, which is dividing the parties over how to recalibrate US policy. Read about thi…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantSecurity and Defense

    Democrats Grapple with US Role in the Middle East

    Democrats scrutinize the first two years of Trump’s foreign policy and grapple with a new path moving forward. Read this and more from the week in Washington.

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantSecurity and Defense

    Saudi Arabia Between Congress and the Trump Administration

    Feb 27, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    After a brief respite, tempers on Capitol Hill are again starting to flare up over Saudi Arabia, pitting Congress against President Trump. Read about this and …

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Feb 15, 2019Marcus Montgomery

    The US federal government avoids another partial shutdown; US-Saudi relations pit Pompeo against a group of senators; Pompeo attends Warsaw summit to mobilize …

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaInternational Law

    The Khashoggi Affair: Saudi Denial 2.0

    Feb 14, 2019Khalil E. Jahshan

    Saudi Arabia continues to deny its leadership’s responsibility for the killing of Jamal Khashoggi, despite all the evidence that has emerged since his assassin…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaSecurity and Defense

    Washington Policy Weekly

    This week’s legislation focuses on Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and War Powers Resolution; Rep. Engel and Sen. Cruz outline their visions of Congress’s role in foreign…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantSecurity and Defense

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Lawmakers pursue legislation regarding Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen; Intelligence officials consider Iran, IS, Saudi Arabia in worldwide threat assessment; t…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Khashoggi Murder and US Middle East Strategy in 2019

    Jan 10, 2019Joe Macaron

    The Khashoggi affair and Trump’s hasty withdrawal from Syria are expected to cast a cloud over Washington’s Middle East strategy in 2019.

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    The Saudi Shake-Up to Consolidate One-Man Rule

    Jan 2, 2019Imad K. Harb

    King Salman’s cabinet reshuffle was to divert attention away from MbS’s responsibility for the killing of Jamal Khashoggi; but it will likely not succeed.

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    The Aftermath of the Khashoggi Murder: Freedom of the Press in 2018

    Dec 21, 2018Tamara Kharroub

    The rise of populism and anti-globalism has contributed to erosion of the international rights system, with governments moving away from accountability and tra…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    SyriaUS Foreign Policy

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Dec 21, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    Secretary Mattis resigns; as federal government shutdown looms, lawmakers introduce bills, resolutions on Israel, Iran, Palestinians; Trump withdraws troops fr…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Mohammed Bin Salman and the “Deal of the Century”

    Dec 17, 2018Yousef Munayyer

    MbS has proven that he is the wrong man for the job of marketing Trump’s deal. If Trump goes ahead with his peace plan with MbS as his salesman, expectations o…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    US Senate Votes to Pressure Saudi Arabia

    Dec 14, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    Corker's resolution to cut off American assistance to the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen is a rebuke to President Trump and the administration.

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    SyriaUS Foreign Policy

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Dec 14, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    Congress moves bills rebuking Saudi Arabia and addressing genocide, human rights violations, and the use of human shields; Pompeo, Mattis, and Haspel brief Hou…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    SyriaUS Foreign Policy

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Lawmakers negotiate legislation to punish Saudi Arabia and MbS; senators hold confirmation hearings for ambassador to Yemen and new CENTCOM commander; CIA Dire…

  • Policy Analysis
    QatarThe GCC

    The GCC Is Meeting Again: What to Expect?

    Regardless of what happens at the GCC summit on December 9, the likelihood is that the council as it functioned up until 2017 is not coming back anytime soon, …

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Washington Policy Weekly

    Nov 30, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    Lawmakers find votes to move Yemen war powers legislation; congressional action pending to protect Iraq, target Iran, and renew US-Jordanian defense cooperatio…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaInternational Law

    Mohammed bin Salman Tries to Polish His Image at the G20

    Nov 29, 2018Imad K. Harb

    Looking at what has transpired since Khashoggi’s death, MbS’s participation in the G20 is unlikely to help him polish his image or restore his reputation.

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    Pompeo and Mattis Strongly Support Saudi Arabia in the US Senate

    Nov 28, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    The Trump Administration likely dealt itself a blow when it sent Secretaries Pompeo and Mattis to the Senate but prevented Haspel from testifying as well.

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Trump’s Extraordinary Statement on Saudi Arabia

    Nov 21, 2018Khalil E. Jahshan

    American national interests would have been better served by withholding such futile statements of denial and disclaimer until Saudi, Turkish, and US investiga…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    President Trump, Congress, and US-Saudi Relations: A Post-Election Assessment

    Nov 21, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    President Trump has made it clear that even if the Saudi crown prince did order the brutal Khashoggi slaying, this should not fundamentally alter US-Saudi rela…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Washington Policy Weekly – November 16, 2018

    Nov 16, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    I. Congress1) LegislationManage Our Wolves Act. By a 201-187 vote, the House voted to adopt H.Res. 1142, which lays out rules for the House to consider a bill …

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Now-Halted War in Hodeida: Was It a Cover for Khashoggi’s Murder?

    Nov 15, 2018Imad K. Harb

    The resumption of fighting around Hodeida cannot be separated from the Saudi attempt to deflect the international community’s attention away from its responsib…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    IranSecurity and Defense

    Washington Policy Weekly – November 2, 2018

    Senators call on Trump to halt nuclear talks with Saudi Arabia; Nauert tapped to be ambassador to United Nations; Pompeo, Mattis call on both sides of Yemen wa…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaJustice, Equality, and Human Rights

    The Khashoggi Affair: The Five Stages of Saudi Denial

    Oct 27, 2018Khalil E. Jahshan

    Coming to terms with the heinous crime and its implications for the kingdom was a slow and painful process reminiscent of the five stages of grief model associ…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    The Global Magnitsky Act and Saudi Arabia

    Oct 26, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    The Trump Administration prefers to accept a plausible story about the Khashoggi killing that allows the president to maneuver away from sanctioning Saudi indi…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    LevantSecurity and Defense

    Washington Policy Weekly – October 26, 2018

    Oct 26, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    Lawmakers continue their push to hold Saudi Arabia responsible for Khashoggi’s death; Sen. Warren wants an investigation into US mercenaries in Yemen; shuttle …

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    Has Saudi Arabia Become a Monarchy of Fear?

    Oct 24, 2018Daniel Brumberg

    With increasing authoritarian tendencies in the current Arab political order, the Khashoggi killing may point to Saudi Arabia as approaching being a monarchy o…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    IranUS Foreign Policy

    Congressional Update – Week Ending October 19, 2018

    Oct 19, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    The fallout from Jamal Khashoggi’s murder continues to reverberate in Washington, pitting Congress against President Trump; Treasury, Justice Departments set t…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantInternational Law

    Murder at the Consulate: The Questions that Occupy Us

    Oct 19, 2018Azmi Bishara

    Many have raised questions about the logic behind murdering Jamal Khashoggi in the consulate, but what kind of leader makes such a criminal yet foolish decisio…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaThe GCC

    The Khashoggi Affair: Can Congress Force the President’s Hand?

    Oct 18, 2018Marcus Montgomery

    Khashoggi’s murder prompted many in Congress to speak out forcefully; but for Republicans, a political battle with the president over relations with Riyadh may…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaThe GCC

    The Khashoggi Affair and the Future of Saudi Arabia

    Oct 12, 2018Imad K. Harb

    Jamal Khashoggi’s disappearance has taken on the importance of a serious international incident whose repercussions are likely to remain with the kingdom for a…