• Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEnergy and Economics

    Exploring the Options: Arab Oil Exporters and the US Dollar

    Jun 21, 2024Jim Krane

    The pricing of oil in US dollars is one of the perks the United States enjoys due to its status as the world’s largest economy and to the dollar’s role as the …

  • Policy Analysis
    YemenEnergy and Economics

    Houthi Red Sea Attacks Have Global Economic Repercussions

    Apr 5, 2024Jim Krane

    The Houthi attacks on Red Sea shipping present a new phenomenon in geo-economic conflict: a non-state actor using asymmetric warfare not just to fight conventi…

  • External Readings
    Palestine/IsraelEnergy and Economics

    Israel’s Central Bank Governor Tries to Assure International Markets

    Nov 21, 2023Barhoum Jaraisi

    Last October, at a conference of the International Monetary Fund in the United States, the Governor of the Central Bank of Israel Amir Yaron sought to reassure…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEnergy and Economics

    The Geopolitics of the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor

    Oct 10, 2023Giorgio Cafiero

    At the G20 summit held in New Delhi in September 2023, the leaders of France, Germany, India, Italy, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, the United States,…

  • Policy Analysis
    TurkeyEnergy and Economics

    Turkey’s Ambitions in Iraq Play Out in Kirkuk

    Oct 3, 2023Mustafa Gurbuz

    In late August, Iraqi Prime Minister Mohammed Shia’ al-Sudani stirred the pot of existing tensions when he ordered the evacuation of the Iraqi military’s Joint…

  • Policy Analysis

    Yemen’s War Economy: A Key Factor in the Ongoing Conflict

    Sep 20, 2023

    As Houthi negotiators leave Saudi Arabia after five days of talks with Saudi officials regarding the contours of a compromise solution to Yemen’s ongoing confl…

  • Intern Corner
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    The US Position on Saudi Arabia’s Civilian Nuclear Program

    Aug 16, 2023 Seerat Sohal

    In June 2023, Saudi Minister of Foreign Affairs Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud affirmed the kingdom’s intent to enrich uranium, part of its desire to develop a civi…

  • Policy Analysis

    Egypt Is in Serious Trouble Seven Decades after Its Free Officers Revolution

    Jul 25, 2023

    Seventy-one years after its July 23, 1952 Revolution, organized by the Free Officers Movement, Egypt’s difficult economic conditions threaten to unravel the ve…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    The UAE-Saudi Arabia Rivalry Becomes a Rift

    Jul 6, 2023Charles W. Dunne

    Saudi Arabia and the UAE are waging a quiet struggle to determine who will emerge as the Arabian Gulf’s—and maybe the Arab world’s—preeminent power.

  • Policy Analysis

    The Erdoğan Doctrine in the Wake of Turkey’s Elections

    Jun 22, 2023

    When Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced his new cabinet following his victory in the May 2023 presidential election, a positive mood ensued. Turk…

  • Policy Analysis

    Shock and Awe: Life in Iraq Twenty Years after the US-led Invasion

    Jun 16, 2023

    This year marks a significant milestone in the American-led “Global War on Terror,” especially in relation to Iraq. It has been 20 years since former Secretary…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaEnergy and Economics

    Saudi Oil Production Cuts: A Self-Interested Move

    May 10, 2023Patricia Karam

    Saudi Arabia’s announcement last month of surprise oil production cuts reverberated around the world. The cuts consisted of a voluntary reduction of 500,000 ba…

  • Policy Analysis

    Kais Saied’s Fantasies Are Drowning Tunisia

    Apr 27, 2023

    The April 18 arrest of Rached Ghannouchi represents a dramatic escalation of Tunisian President Kais Saied’s assault on the political opposition. The leader of…

  • Policy Analysis

    Iran: A Resource-Rich Country Reeling from Rampant Poverty

    Apr 3, 2023

    Even for a state as heavily militarized and intractable as the Islamic Republic of Iran, the breadth and depth of the economic maladies it is facing are crushi…

  • Policy Analysis

    Egypt Has Broken Its Social Contract with Its Citizens

    Mar 14, 2023

    In response to rising oil and food prices, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi recently insinuated that Egyptians should “eat tree leaves” in order to surv…

  • Policy Analysis

    Green Power Politics in North African Countries: Continuity or Change?

    Mar 1, 2023

    In 2023, environmental and climate issues will again be at the top of the policy agenda in the Middle East and North Africa. The upcoming COP28 climate confere…

  • Policy Analysis

    Lebanon’s Politicians Are Incapable of Productive Dialogue

    Jan 12, 2023

    Lebanon has now entered the fourth year of its devastating economic crisis and collapse, with no end in sight and no hint regarding the possible launch of a re…

  • Policy Analysis

    The IMF and the Arab World: Beyond the Washington Consensus

    Jan 4, 2023

    Throughout the Arab world, there have been numerous protests, uprisings, and challenges to the painful policies that come with an International Monetary Fund (…

  • Policy Analysis
    JordanProtests and Activism

    The Deeper Context to Political Unrest and Protests in Jordan

    Dec 21, 2022Curtis Ryan

    Protests have once again rocked the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, with truckers, bus and taxi drivers, and others in the transportation sector having staged var…

  • Policy Analysis

    Egypt and the IMF: Greater Foreign Debt and Deeper Economic Decline

    Nov 17, 2022

    Egypt reached a new agreement with the IMF to borrow $3 billion over a 46-month period. The Egyptian economy has been struggling over the past couple of years …

  • Policy Analysis

    US-Gulf Relations After OPEC+ Production Cuts

    Nov 2, 2022

    American presidents have long relied on Saudi Arabia and its leadership of OPEC to ease price pressure on oil markets, particularly in the lead-up to US electi…

  • Policy Analysis

    Lebanon Will Not Benefit from Its Maritime Agreement with Israel

    Oct 31, 2022

    After ten years of on-again, off-again negotiations, Lebanon and Israel have finally reached what leaders in both countries consider an acceptable deal to dema…

  • Viewpoint
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEnergy and Economics

    With Friends Like These: OPEC’s Oil Production and US-Gulf Relations

    Oct 7, 2022Imad K. Harb

    In a move that will certainly have serious political and economic repercussions in the United States and around the world, OPEC+, a group of oil-producing nati…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam: Limited Options for a Resolution

    Sep 16, 2022

    On August 12, Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced that his country has now completed the third filling of the reservoir behind its controversial Gran…

  • Policy Analysis

    Lebanon Struggles to Pick up the Pieces After the Beirut Port Explosion

    Sep 9, 2022

    Lebanon’s independence in 1943 formally ended a 23-year French mandate backed by the League of Nations, a period that saw the consolidation of the country’s cu…

  • Policy Analysis

    An Update on the Lebanon-Israel Border Dispute

    Sep 7, 2022

    As the summer comes to a close, indirect negotiations to demarcate the maritime border between Lebanon and Israel continue apace. Although US mediator Amos Hoc…

  • Policy Analysis

    Little to Show After Two Years of Tense Lebanese-Israeli Maritime Border Negotiations

    Jul 8, 2022

    Lebanon and Israel have frequently been at odds during their nearly two years of negotiations over the two countries’ Mediterranean maritime border, with diffi…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Flaws and Failings of the World Bank’s Research on the Palestinian Economy

    Jun 21, 2022

    A recent World Bank report on the Palestinian economy once again demonstrates that most research produced by international financial institutions on this topic…

  • Policy Analysis

    Food Insecurity in Palestine and the Russia-Ukraine War: The Worst Is Yet to Come

    Jun 9, 2022

    The potential impact of a drop in the supply of grain to global markets due to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war has increased fears about food insecurity around …

  • Policy Analysis
    EgyptEnergy and Economics

    Gulf Countries’ Aid to Egypt: It Is Politics, Not the Economy, Stupid!

    May 5, 2022Khalil Al-Anani

    On April 4, 2022, Gulf Arab countries pledged $22 billion to help Egypt avert a currency crisis resulting from the Russian war on Ukraine. The Egyptian pound l…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Horn of AfricaEnergy and Economics

    Horn of Africa’s Security Concerns and Economic Crises

    The current Russia-Ukraine crisis has overshadowed another troubled region of the world, namely the Horn of Africa, which encompasses Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti,…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Need for an International Development Fund for Lebanon

    Jan 6, 2022

    The International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB), European Union (EU), France, and the United States are all trying to help Lebanon out of the economic a…

  • Policy Analysis

    US-Palestinian Economic Talks Serve Israeli Interests

    Dec 29, 2021

    The recent resumption of discussions about economic ties between the US government and the Palestinian Authority (PA) after a five-year hiatus must be understo…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Conflicted Role of Lebanon’s Central Bank

    Oct 12, 2021

    Over the past few decades, public debt, sectarian nepotism, and fixed exchange rates have been three significant challenges to the Lebanese economy; albeit the…

  • Policy Analysis
    LebanonEnergy and Economics

    Lebanon’s Energy Crisis Fuels US-Iran Tensions

    Aug 25, 2021Joe Macaron

    In the midst of an economic collapse and an energy crisis, Lebanon has found itself in a tug of war between the United States and Iran. On August 19, Hezbollah…

  • Policy Analysis

    Will Egypt Live with GERD as a Bitter Reality?

    Aug 19, 2021

    On July 19, Ethiopia announced that it had completed the second filling of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). This unilateral step had been rejected b…

  • Policy Analysis

    Challenges Facing Sustainable Development Goals in Arab States

    Jul 30, 2021

    The end of the twentieth century was a tumultuous period for much of the world. Many countries were experiencing economic turmoil, and many hard-won gains in h…

  • Viewpoint
    Saudi ArabiaRegional Relations and Geopolitics

    Is a Saudi-Emirati Rift on the Horizon?

    Jul 7, 2021Imad K. Harb

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) appears to be approaching another unwelcome rift, this time between its two most vocal and influential members, Saudi Arabia…

  • Policy Analysis

    Failures of Authoritarian Governance in Egypt

    Apr 28, 2021

    On March 23, the world's attention turned to Egypt as traffic in the strategic Suez Canal was disrupted after the 400-meter container ship, the Ever Given, ran…

  • Policy Analysis

    Starving and Being Starved: Addressing Food Insecurity in Arab Populations

    Apr 5, 2021

    After years of civil war and outside intervention, Yemen continues to be widely recognized as having the world’s worst humanitarian crisis. A significant contr…

  • Intern Corner
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfEnergy and Economics

    China’s Maritime Challenge to the United States in the Gulf

    Mar 30, 2021Gabriella Haedelt

    The Arabian Gulf has emerged as a theater of investment, international integration, and rivalry for global powers, especially after Chinese President Xi Jinpin…

  • Policy Analysis

    Climate Change in the Arab World: An Existential Threat in an Unstable Region

    Mar 2, 2021

    In the mid-2010s, several years into Syria’s brutal civil war, a theory emerged that perhaps the conflict was even more complicated than originally conceived. …

  • Policy Analysis

    Increasing Contestation over the Red Sea and Horn of Africa

    Dec 23, 2020

    Growing international and regional involvement in the Red Sea-Horn of Africa theater has made this area a potential hot spot that is somewhat reminiscent of Be…

  • Policy Analysis

    Lebanon Risks Becoming Irrelevant

    Nov 11, 2020

    For the third time in the span of a year, Lebanese politicians are trying to go back to the proverbial drawing board. On October 22nd, President Michel Aoun ap…

  • Policy Analysis

    US-Russian Competition and the M4 Highway in Syria

    Jun 23, 2020

    Joe Macaron argues that in Syria, implementing the Caesar Act sanctions and opening the east-west M4 Highway reflect intensified US-Russian competition while t…

  • Policy Analysis
    The Arabian Peninsula and The GulfUS Foreign Policy

    US Middle East Policy in Free Fall

    May 28, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Gulf Arab states have little choice but to rely for their security needs on the Trump Administration despite its feckless policy in the Middle East and poor ca…

  • Policy Analysis
    Saudi ArabiaDemocracy and Governance

    MbS’s New “Vision 2020”: Reform and Repression

    May 5, 2020Daniel Brumberg

    Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MbS) will most likely weather the political, economic, and health storms generated by COVID-19. Prompted by th…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Impact of Low Oil Prices and COVID-19 on Arab Economies

    May 4, 2020

    Bessma Momani analyzes the global oil price collapse and the COVID-19 public health crisis as a dual blow to the social and economic well-being of both oil-ric…

  • Washington Policy Weekly
    Saudi ArabiaUS Foreign Policy

    Did the Saudi-Led Oil Deal Diminish Republicans’ 2020 Electoral Chances?

    Apr 15, 2020Marcus Montgomery

    Because the health of the US economy is critical for Donald Trump's reelection hopes, Marcus Montgomery asks if the recent Saudi-led OPEC+ cuts will contribute…

  • Policy Analysis

    The COVID-19 Pandemic Prompts Debate over Iran Sanctions

    Apr 1, 2020

    Marcus Montgomery details splits in official Washington about how to deal with Iran at this delicate time of the coronavirus outbreak: some want to offer sanct…

  • Policy Analysis
    MoroccoDemocracy and Governance

    Morocco: Despite Some Progress, Many Challenges Remain

    Mar 31, 2020Nabeel A. Khoury

    Nabeel Khoury discusses Morocco's political and economic conditions and cautions its elite to use the opportunity of the current social calm engendered by the …

  • Policy Analysis

    The Economic Prospects of the White House’s New Plan for Peace

    Feb 25, 2020

    Evaluating the economic portion of Trump’s plan for Palestinian-Israeli peace, Colin Powers argues that for its economics as much as for its politics and immor…

  • Viewpoint

    The Collapse of the Syrian Pound May Doom the Syrian Economy

    Jan 23, 2020

    Syria’s most difficult battle now is how to support its national currency and fix its collapsing economy with an impoverished central bank and the absence of r…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Lebanese Uprising: No End in Sight for the Current Impasse

    Nov 20, 2019

    Joe Macaron explains the different factors of the current impasse between the Lebanese ruling political class and the protesters, seeing no end in sight for th…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Limited Utility of the Iran Sanctions

    Nov 4, 2019

    Kenneth Katzman writes that a range of observations and data support the assertion that to date, the Trump Administration’s maximum pressure campaign against I…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Attacks on Saudi Oil Installations are a Game Changer

    Sep 17, 2019

    The latest attacks on Saudi Arabia’s oil installations are a game changer in Saudi domestic politics and in regional and international affairs.

  • Policy Analysis

    Positive Economic Growth in Egypt Belies Mounting Problems

    Aug 21, 2019

    Opening up the political and economic systems in Egypt would allow for sustained private sector growth and a free flow of ideas—and criticism—that would keep t…

  • Policy Analysis

    Tunisia’s Fragile Democracy after Essebsi

    Aug 2, 2019

    Daniel Brumberg argues that Tunisia’s Essebsi leaves behind a political crisis that is partly rooted in a convoluted constitutional language that does not clea…

  • Policy Analysis

    An Economic Analysis of Kushner’s Failed Plan

    Jul 3, 2019

    “Peace to Prosperity” brings little that is new to the table, follows an ill-suited fundamentalist market ideology, and ignores the Israeli occupation as the m…

  • Policy Analysis

    What Actually Ails the Palestinian Economy?

    Jun 20, 2019

    The Israeli occupation and lack of freedom for Palestinians are the most salient factors that hamper the Palestinian economy, and this should be blindingly obv…

  • Policy Analysis

    Inclusive Economic Growth in Arab States

    Jun 1, 2019

    This paper is part of ACW's fourth book, titled The Arab World Beyond Conflict.IntroductionThe global economy is undergoing considerable structural shifts that…

  • Policy Analysis

    Deep Socioeconomic Disparities Exacerbate Arab Tensions

    Jun 1, 2019

    This paper is part of ACW's fourth book, titled The Arab World Beyond Conflict.The far-reaching turmoil that plagues most Arab countries today reflects problem…

  • Policy Analysis

    Trump’s Doomed Quest for a Middle East Strategic Alliance

    Feb 5, 2019

    Trump's Middle East Strategic Alliance is doomed because not all states there agree that Iran poses the biggest threat. A larger obstacle is the president's re…

  • Policy Analysis

    How the Private Sector Supports Authoritarians in the Arab World

    Jan 30, 2019

    The private sector in the United States and around the world has a responsibility to confront authoritarian regimes and help protect human rights and the rule …

  • Policy Analysis

    The Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum Reinforces Current Regional Dynamics

    Jan 25, 2019

    The recently announced Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum is not likely to aid cooperation or economic integration because the policies of its member states mirro…

  • Viewpoint

    Qatar Withdraws from OPEC: Business, Politics, or Both?

    Dec 6, 2018

    It strains credulity to believe that Qatar’s decision to withdraw from OPEC was taken in total isolation from the regional conflict and tensions with neighbors.

  • Policy Analysis
    IraqEnergy and Economics

    Controlling the Nasib Crossing Is a Game Changer for the Syrian Regime

    Jul 19, 2018Joe Macaron

    The imminent opening of the Nasib crossing on the Syrian-Jordanian border could revitalize commercial activities in the Levant; but challenges lie ahead, inclu…

  • Policy Analysis

    Libya: Controlling Oil, Fearing Partition

    Jul 16, 2018

    In light of Libya’s institutional fragmentation between east and west, control of the Oil Crescent and its revenues has become a determining factor in the coun…

  • Policy Analysis

    The Egypt-Ethiopia Nile Water Crisis: a Cause for Regional Tensions?

    Jul 5, 2018

    While the Ethiopian dam on the Nile could be a source of conflict in east Africa, and while relations among Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan will remain unsettled fo…

  • Viewpoint

    Pompeo Peddles Disaster for American Interests

    May 22, 2018

    Another spectacle of a confused American foreign policy was on display on May 21, 2018 at the Heritage Foundation, where Secretary of State Mike Pompeo deliver…

  • Policy Analysis
    LevantEnergy and Economics

    Between Idealism and Realpolitik: Erdoğan’s Quest for Palestine

    Apr 26, 2018Mustafa Gurbuz

    Turkey’s active policy for Palestine enables Ankara to strengthen its ties to the Palestinian Authority and Hamas simultaneously and thus to bolster its role a…

  • Policy Analysis

    A Saudi Comeback to Lebanese Politics?

    Mar 14, 2018

    Nearly 100 days after his mysterious “captivity” in the Saudi capital, Lebanese Prime Minister Saad al-Hariri visited Riyadh again on February 28. The timing c…

  • Policy Analysis

    Turkey’s Challenge to Arab Interests in the Horn of Africa

    Feb 22, 2018

    Turkey’s policies and many activities around the Red Sea and the Horn of Africa have added complications to the already complex strategic picture of the Middle…

  • Policy Analysis

    Jordanian-Iraqi Relations on the Mend, but Problems Remain

    Feb 8, 2018

    Economic necessities and opposition to the so-called Islamic State have brought Jordan and Iraq closer together, but Amman remains concerned about Baghdad’s li…

  • Policy Analysis

    Turkey’s Policy toward a Fractured Libya

    Dec 12, 2017

    Turkey is interested in being on good terms with all Libyan factions but is caught up in the complex relations between Libya’s political forces and their regio…

  • Policy Analysis

    The GCC’s Future Is in the Balance after Its 38th Summit Meeting

    Dec 7, 2017

    The GCC should be preserved despite the failure of its 38th summit meeting in Kuwait and the establishment of a Saudi Arabian-Emirati new political and militar…

  • Policy Analysis

    Domestic Troubles for the Saudi Arabian Leadership

    Oct 24, 2017

    Mohammed bin Salman’s challenge to established norms of governance in Saudi Arabia and the abrupt changes in its economic and social conditions may help pull t…

  • Policy Analysis

    An Economic Explanation for Egypt’s Alignment in the GCC Crisis

    Aug 9, 2017

    With Egypt heavily reliant on Saudi Arabia and the UAE for its economic stability and survival, Cairo may not find much room for independent foreign policy dec…

  • Policy Analysis

    Challenges Facing Algeria’s Future

    Jul 21, 2017

    Algeria is challenged by a lethargic political system headed by an ailing president, a poorly performing rentier economy, and a rising Salafi Islam that is com…

  • Policy Analysis

    Youth Unemployment Remains the Main Challenge in the Gulf States

    Jul 11, 2017

    Persistently high youth unemployment remains the chief domestic challenge facing the Gulf states. Efforts to encourage the private sector to absorb new entrant…